Effect of diet fat content on vitamin status of rats
The influence of low (1%) and high (31%) diet fat content (sunflower-seed oil and lard 1:1 at a ratio of 1:1) on vitamin A, E, B1 and B2 status of growing Wistar rats (8 rats per group) with initial body weight 80–100 g has been investigated. The semi-synthetic diet contained vitamin mixture in doses covering the physiological requirement of these animals. The increase of fat content (31%) in the diet due to the presence of vitamin E in sunflower-seed oil automatically lead to 1,7-fold increase consumption of this vitamin compared to the control group. Diet fat content did not affect the level of vitamins B1 and B2 in rat liver. Excessive intake of fat and vitamin E for 6 weeks did not influence on the content of blood plasma vitamin E and rat liver vitamin A occurs at the same time, while significant 1,9 fold elevation of liver vitamin E level and 26 per cent increase of blood plasma vitamin A concentration. The almost complete exclusion of fat from the diet had no effect on blood plasma level of alpha-tocopherol and retinol, but resulted in a significant decrease of vitamins A and E content in rat liver by 40 per cent, indicating a deterioration of sufficiency with these fat-soluble vitamins. The analysis of the results obtained in this investigation and literature data have suggested that under excessive as well as under decreased consumption of fat there is a risk of the development of polyhypovitaminosis. Vitamin complex supplementation is required to prevent a possible worsening of vitamin status under diets with modified fatty component.
Keywords:diet fat, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin В1, vitamin В2, liver, blood plasma, rat