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Characteristics of the macronutrient composition of diet and some somatometric indicators of patients with tuberculosis

Abstract

Relevance of the diet to the physiological needs of the organism is an important factor determining the incidence of tuberculosis in the world and effectiveness of its treatment. The need to study actual nutrition and nutritional status is determined by its significant changes in recent decades.

Aim: to study the actual nutrition and assess somatometric indicators of the nutritional status of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the acute stage.

Material and methods. 217 men and 83 women, the average age of 42.9±0.7years have been examined. Design: cross-sectional (simultaneous) epidemiological study. Research period: 2018. The method of analyzing the frequency of food consumption for the month preceding hospitalization has been applied. The somatometric indicators (height, body weight, waist, hip, shoulder girth) have been analysed, body mass index (BMI) have been determined.

Results and discussion. 77.7±2.4% showed non-compliance of the diet energy with the recommended values, an imbalance in diet according to the content of macronutrients was noted in 88.0%, insufficient amount of protein in the diet, taking into account the existing disease, in particular - animal protein was observed in 68.3% of the examined. Excessive intake of fats, including saturated fatty acids took place in 52.0%, cholesterol in 51.0%, as well as insufficient intake of dietary fiber was revealed in 38.7% of the examined. 19.3% had a malnutrition degree 1 (according to BMI), 11.7% had a 2nd degree, and 2% had a 3rd degree, respectively. BMI within normal limits (according to WHO criteria) was recorded in 57.7% of patients. The proportion of patients with overweight and obesity did not exceed 10% (7.3 and 2.0%, respectively).

Conclusion. The assessment of the nutritional status of patients suffering from tuberculosis and the identification of the macronutrient imbalance of their diet determine the need for their correction in the organization of therapeutic nutrition.

Keywords:tuberculosis, actual nutrition, nutritional status, consumption, macronutrients, body mass index

For citation: Pasechnik O.A., Vilms E.A., Turchaninov D.V., Sokhoshko I.A., Shirinskiy V.A. Characteristics of the macronutrient composition of diet and some somatometric indicators of patients with tuberculosis. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2019; 88 (5): 24-30. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10050 (in Russian)

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