Comparative assessment of N-nitrosamines' contamination of baby's canned meat with vegetables and cereals by various methods in Russia and Vietnam
The quality and safety of food, intended for baby in particular, is one of the global issues of our time. The group of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines is of especially dangerous. It is worth mentioning that currently there are no standards for their content in Vietnam. Therefore, to ensure the chemical safety of infant food, it is necessary to improve the control system, including the development of modern technical and methodological base.
The aim of the research is the comparative assessment of contamination with highly toxic, N-nitrosoamines of baby canned meat and vegetable products by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using an automatic solid-phase extraction system and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).
Material and methods. The objects of research were homogenized canned meat-vegetable products for baby nutrition - 21 samples taken from the distribution network of the Republic of Vietnam: vegetables and rice with chicken (sample No. 1); sweet corn with mashed potatoes and turkey (sample No. 2); potatoes with veal (sample No. 3); each species has 7 samples. Each food sample was analyzed thrice by two methods. At the Federal Center of Perm, the screening studies of canned foods were performed using GC/ MS with application of the automatic solid-phase extraction system (SPE) after distillation using alkaline catalysis at the sample preparation stage. At the National Institute of Food Control of Republic of Viеtnam, canned samples were studied using GC-MS/MS. The extraction method was developed on the base of QuEChERS-approach.
Results and discussion. During the research, the following chemical contaminants were found in the canned samples: N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-methylethyl nitrosoamine, N-dipropylnitrosoamine, N-dibutyl nitrosoamine, N-piperidinitrozoamine, N-pyrrolidinin nitrosoamine, N-morpholinithrosamine and N-diphenyl nitrosoamine. It was demonstrated that the results of quantitative determination of the content of N-nitrosoamines in canned meat of Vietnam producers obtained in different laboratories are comparable and have good validation characteristics for the determination of N-nitrosoamines in baby food. Thus, N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected by both methods in all analyzed samples in the concentration range from 0.00045 to 0.00077 mg/kg. Values exceeding the maximum permissible level of N-nitrosoamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine) in canned meat and vegetable samples (0.001 mg/kg according to Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR TC 021/ 2011 “On Food Safety”) were not found. The application of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the use of an automatic SPE system made it possible to achieve high comparability of the results in chemical analysis of N-nitrosoamines in canned products obtained in the laboratory of the Center and the National Institute for Food Control of Vietnam.
Conclusion. The executed studies indicate the need for further monitoring of the content of chemicals in baby products in order to justify methodological approaches to the analysis of the risk of the simultaneous effect of chemical contaminants on the health of children. In this regard, it seems extremely important and relevant issue of hygienic regulation of the content of the studied compounds in products for baby food.
Keywords:N-nitrosamines, canned products, baby food, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, solid-phase extraction, gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
For citation: Zaitseva N.V., Tran Cao Son, Bui Cao Tien, Ulanova T.S., Nurislamova TV., Maltseva O.A. Comparative assessment of N-nitrosamines' contamination of baby's canned meat with vegetables and cereals by various methods in Russia and Vietnam. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2019; 88 (5): 93-102. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10058 (in Russian)
1. Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation (conf. by Presidential Decree of the Russian Federation No. 120 from 30.01.2010). (in Russian)
2. National Program in Feeding Optimization of Children in the First Year of Life in the Russian Federation. Moscow: Soyuz pediatrov Rossii, 2011: 68 p. (in Russian)
3. Gofman VR. Ecological and Social Aspects of Alimentary Raw 10. Materials and Food: Study guide. Chelyabinsk: Izdatel’stvo YuUrGU, 2004: 551 p. (in Russian)
4. Reinik M., Tamme T., Roasto M., Juhkam K., Jurtsenko S., Tenno T., et al. Nitrites, nitrates and N-nitrosoamines in Estonian cured meat products: intake by Estonian children and adolescents. Food Addit Contam. 2005; 22 (11): 1098-105. doi: 10.1080/02652030500241827
5. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks for Humans. Lyon, 1991; 52: 473 p.
6. Scheeren M.B., Arul J., Gariepy C. Comparison of different methods for nitrite and nitrate determination in meat products. 59th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology. Izmir, Turkey, 18-23 August 2013. URL https://www.academia. edu/20453626/Comparison_of_different_methods_for_Nitrite_ and_Nitrate_determination_in_Meat_Products
7. Pegg R.B., Shahidi F. Nitrite Curing of Meat: The N-Nitrosamine Problem and Nitrite Alternatives. Trumbull: Food and Nitrition Press, 2000: 280 p.
8. Opopol’ N.I., Dobrianskaia E.V. Nitrates: Hygienic Aspects and Problems. Kishinev, 1990: 115 p. (in Russian)
9. Sipetic S.B., Vlajinac H.D., Kocev N.I., Marinkovic J.M., Radma-novic S.Z., Bjekic M.D. The Belgrade childhood diabetes study: a multivariate analysis of risk determinants for diabetes. Eur J Public Health. 2005; 15 (2): 117-22.
10. Interstate Standardization Recommendations 61-2010. State System for Ensuring the Uniformity of Measurements. Indicators of Accuracy, Correctness, Precision Methods of Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Assessment Methods URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/docu-ment/1200094703 (date of access June 20, 2017) (in Russian)
11. Iaroshenko D.V., Kartsova L.A. Matrix effect and its elimination methods in bioanalytical methods using chromatography-mass spectrometry. Zhurnal analiticheskoy khimii [Journal of Analitical Chemistry]. 2014; 69 (4): 1-8. (in Russian)
12. Amelin V.G., Lavrukhin D.K. Combination of microwave heating extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of nitrosoamines in foods using gas-liquid chromatography with a mass-spectrometric detector. J Anal Chem. 2016; 71 (4): 359-64. doi: 10.1134/S1061934816020027
13. Lehotay S.J., Son K.A., Kwon H., Koesukwiwat U., Fu W., Mas-tovska K., et al. Comparison of QuEChERS sample preparation methods for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. J Chromatogr A. 2010; 1217 (16): 2548-60. doi: 10.1016/ j.chroma.2010.01.044