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Dietary intake of children with cystic fibrosis

Abstract

The high incidence of nutritional deficiency in cystic fibrosis continues to be an urgent problem in pediatrics. This is due to the multifactorial nature of these violations, one of which is the lack of effectiveness of nutritional correction.

The aim of the research was to assess the actual diet of children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis in order to develop an algorithm for individual approaches to correcting nutritional status.

Material and methods. 150 children (boys - 85, girls - 65) aged 1 year to 18 years (average age 6.4±5.2 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis have been examined. Depending on age, the children were divided into groups: the 1st group consisted of 40 children from 1 year to 2 years (average age 1.9±0.7 years); 2nd group - from 3 to 5 years (n=41, 4.4 ±1.0 years); 3rd group - from 6 to 9 years (n=43, 7.7±1.1 years); 4th group - from 10 to 18 years old (n=26, 13.1±2.5). The actual nutrition was evaluated by questionnaire for 3 days, including one day off. Body mass, height have been measured, and body mass index (BMI) have been calculated.

Results and discussion. Only children of the first three years of life had an optimal diet for this disease in terms of energy value. At the age of 3 years and older, the deficit of energy intake increased, reaching 32% of the individual requirement in adolescence (10-18 years). The structure of nutrition revealed an imbalance of the main nutrients in the direction of the predominance of the lipid component (more than 40% of the energy value) and increased intake of saturated fatty acids, with a reduced proportion of protein and carbohydrates. There was a lack of dietary intake of a number of vitamins (C, B1, B2, A, E, D) and mineral substances (iron, potassium).

Conclusion. The study showed the need for an individual approach to the correction of diet energy value and macronutrient intake in children with cystic fibrosis.

Keywords:cystic fibrosis, children, nutritional status, diet, energy value, macronutrients, actual nutrition

Funding. The study had no sponsor support.

Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

For citation: Maksimycheva T.Yu., Kondratyeva E.I., Sorvacheva T.N., Pyrieva E.A., Evdokimova T.A. Dietary intake of children with cystic fibrosis. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2020; 89 (1): 28-36. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10003 (in Russian)

Received 25.09.2019. Accepted 24.01.2020.


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