The study of biological effects of different geographical origin goji berries in rats with alimentary hypercholesterolemia
Food and medicinal plants as well as its’ fruits, used in traditional medicine, are now widely used as sources of bioactive phytochemical compounds to impart functional properties to products. Due to the significant variation in phytonutrient content depending on geoclimatic conditions, a comparative study of goji berries collected in different regions seems to be relevant.
The aim - comparative study of L. barbarum and L. chinense berries and its biological effects when inclusion in the diet of rats with experimental hyperlipidemia.
Material and methods. In the berries of L. barbarum (China) and L. chinense (Kazakhstan), the composition of monosaccharides, the content of vitamins (D, E, C), minerals (Mg, Ca, Se), phenolic compounds and steroid substances as well as catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant activity was determined. Biological experiment lasted 186 days, it was carried out on Wistar rats, divided into intact (n=10) and experimental animals (n=48), in which alimentary hyperlipidemia was reproduced for 100 days (diet containing animal fats 5.0-19.0% and cholesterol 0.5-2.0%), further animals were divided in control rats with hyperlipidemia, consuming a standard diet (group 1) and experimental rats, which were supplemented for 86 days with L. barbarum (group 2) and L. chinense (group 3) in an amount of 20% of the diet carbohydrate component. On the 128th and 186th days of the experiment, rats’ blood serum was analyzed for total protein, albumin, creatinine and urea, triacylglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and the total antioxidant activity of blood serum was measured.
Results and discussion. L. chinense berries, which are characterized by a high content of phenolic compounds (20% higher than in L. barbarum berries), when administered to rats with alimentary hyperlipidemia on the 28th day, reduced the concentration of total cholesterol by 44.1% and low-density lipoproteins by 35.8% relative to control animals, on day 86 contributed to an increase in the concentration of high density lipoproteins to 79.6%. The effect of L. barbarum berries, characterized by an increase in high density lipoproteins in rat blood (by 62.3%), may be due to a higher content of vitamins C, E and selenium (35, 11 and 22% more than in L. chinense), the presence of phytosterols and phytostanols, in particular dodecanoic acid.
Conclusion. The data obtained indicate a pronounced antioxidant effect of L. barbarum and L. chinense berries and the possibility of their use in the diet to correct lipid metabolism disorders.
Keywords:Goji berries, Lycium barbarum, Lycium chinense, antioxidants, alimentary hyperlipidemia, rats, lipid profile
Funding. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16-16-10073).
Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
For citation: Chernukha I.M., Kotenkova E.A., Vasilevskaya E.R., Ivankin A N., Lisitsyn A.B., Fedulova L.V. The study of biological effects of different geographical origin goji berries in rats with alimentary hypercholesterolemia. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2020; 89 (1): 37-45. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10004 (in Russian)
1. Yao R., Heinrich M., Weckerle C.S. The genus Lycium as food and medicine: A botanical, ethnobotanical and historical review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018; 212: 50-66. doi: 10.1016/jjep.2017.10.010
2. Szajdek A., Borowska E. Bioactive compounds and health-promoting properties of berry fruits: a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2008; 63 (4): 147-56. doi: 10.1007/s11130-008-0097-5
3. Gao Y., Wei Y., Wang Y., Gao F., Chen Z. Lycium barbarum: a traditional chinese herb and a promising anti-aging agent. Aging Dis. 2017; 1 (8): 778-91. doi: 10.14336/AD.2017.0725
4. Tutelyan V.A., Kiseleva T.L., Kochetkova A.A., Smirnova E.A., Kiseleva M.A., Sarkisyan V.A. Promising source of micronutrients for specialized foods with modified carbohydrate profile: traditional medicine experience. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2016; 85 (4): 46-60. (in Russian)
5. Benvenuti S., Pellati F., Melegari M., Bertelli D. Polyphenols, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and radical scavenging activity of Rubus, Ribes, and Aronia. J Food Sci. 2004; 69 (3): 164-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb13352.x
6. Kulczynski B., Gramza-Michafowska A. Goji berry (Lycium barbarum): composition and health effects-a review. Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2016; 66 (2): 67-75. doi: 10.1515/pjfns-2015-0040
7. Ma Z.F., Zhang H., Teh S.S., Wang C.W., Zhang Y., Hayford F., et al. Goji berries as a potential natural antioxidant medicine: an insight into their molecular mechanisms of action. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019; 2019: 2437397. doi:10.1155/2019/2437397
8. Basov A.A., Bykov I.M. Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2013; 82 (6): 75-81. (in Russian)
9. Firuzi O., Miri R., Tavakkoli M., Saso L. Antioxidant therapy: current status and future prospects. Curr Med Chem. 2011; 18 (25): 3871-88. doi: 10.2174/092986711803414368
10. Denisenko T.A., Vishnikin A.B., Tsiganok L.P. Spectrophoto-metric determination of phenolic compounds sum in plants using aluminum chloride, 18-molybdodiphosphate and folin-ciocalteu reagents. Analitika i kontrol [Analytics and Control]. 2015; 19 (4): 373-80. (in Russian) doi: 10.15826/analitika.2015.19.4.012
11. Aebi H. Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 1984; 105: 121-6. doi: 10.1016/s0076-6879(84)05016-3
12. Marklund S.L. Human copper-containing superoxide dismutase of high molecular weight. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1982; 79: 7634-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.79.24.7634
13. Chernukha I.M., Fedulova L.V., Kotenkova E.A., Takeda S., Sakata R. Hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of aorta and heart tissues of cattle and pigs in the atherosclerosis rat model. Anim Sci J. 2018; 89 (5): 784-93. doi: 10.1111/asj.12986
14. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals: eighth edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2011; 220.
15. Kondrakhin I.P. Methods of veterinaryclinical laboratory diagnostics: Handbook. Moscow: Kolos-s. 2004; 520 p. (in Russian)
16. Potterat O. Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity. Planta Med. 2010; 76: 7-19. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1186218
17. Mocan A., Vlase L., Vodnar D.C., et al. Polyphenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves. Molecules. 2014; 19: 10056-73. doi: 10.3390/molecules190710056
18. Liu Y., Zeng S., Sun W., Wu M., Hu W., Shen X., et al. Comparative analysis of carotenoid accumulation in two goji (Lycium barbarum L. and L. ruthenicum Murr.) fruits. BMC Plant Biol. 2014; 14: 269. doi: 10.1186/s12870-014-0269-4
19. Feng S., Gan L., Yang C.S., Liu A.B., Lu W., Shao P., et al. Effects of stigmasterol and p-sitosterol on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a mouse model: a lipidomic analysis. J Agric Food Chem. 2018; 66 (13): 3417-25. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b06146
20. Benstoem C., Goetzenich A., Kraemer S., et al. Selenium and its supplementation in cardiovascular disease - what do we know? Nutrients. 2015; 7: 3094-118. doi: 10.3390/nu7053094
21. Sun L., Meng Y., Sun J., Guo Y. Characterization, antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharides from pre-pressing separation Fuji apple peel. Cyta j food. 2017; 15 (2): 307-19. doi: 10.1080/19476337.2016.1263241
22. Cheng Y., Tang K., Wu S., Liu L., Qiang C., Lin X., et al. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins. PLoS One. 2011; 6 (11): e27437. doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0027437
23. Khuchieva M.A., Perova N.V., Akhmedzhanov N.M. Plant sterols and stanols as dietary factors reducing hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption. Kardiovaskulyarnaya terapiya i profilaktika [Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention]. 2011; 10 (6): 124-32. (in Russian)
24. Wojcieszek J., Kwiatkowski P., Ruzik L. Speciation analysis and bioaccessibility evaluation of trace elements in goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.). J Chrom. 2017; 1492: 70-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chro-ma.2017.02.069
25. Pai P.G., Habeeba P., Ullal S., et al. Evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of Lycium barbarum (Goji berry) in a murine model. J Nat Rem. 2013; 13 (1): 1-5. doi: 10.18311/jnr/2013/110
26. Basu A., Rhone M., Lyons T.J. Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health. Nutr Rev. 2010; 68 (3): 168-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00273.x