Vitamin content of apple juices and ciders made from them


The composition of apples is diverse and is represented by various compounds including vitamins. When processing apple fruits into ciders, vitamins take part in numerous biochemical processes and undergo significant changes.

The purpose of this research was to study the content of vitamins in apple juice and ciders produced from fruits of 30 varieties and forms of apple tree of domestic and foreign selection.

Material and methods. To obtain ciders, apples of various pomological varieties and elite forms were ground on a homogenizer separately under the same processing mode. Then the juice (wort) was separated from the pulp. After that, the wort of each apple variety was fermented separately under the same conditions using the Fruit yeast race (genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Erbsle Geisenheim, Germany) at a temperature of 18±1 °C. The mass concentration of B vitamins (B1, B2, B6 and PP) in juices and ciders was determined by high performance liquid chromatography, vitamin C and rutin – by capillary electrophoresis.

Results. It has been shown that the vitamin level depends of the apple varieties and the harvest time. Varieties with the highest concentrations of vitamins C, B group and rutin have been identified. Most of these varieties fell on apples of the autumn ripening period. The concentration of vitamins as a result of alcoholic fermentation has changed significantly. The concentration of vitamin C decreased by 2.4 times, B2 – by 1.5 times, B1 – by 1.3 times, PP and rutin – by 1.2 times. At the same time, vitamins B1 and B6 were not found in ciders produced from Amulet and Golden Summer apple varieties. Vitamin B6 was also not found in ciders from Vasilisa, Imrus, Soyuz, Champion apple varieties, and from 12/1-20-(16.17), 12/1-20-70, 12/2-20-33 forms.

Conclusion. The highest concentration of vitamins was determined in juices and ciders made from apples harvested in autumn. The apples varieties have been identified, the processing of which into ciders preserves the greatest amount of vitamins: Prikubanskoe, Bagryanec Kuban, Renet Platona, Orpheus, Margo, 12/3-21-28, 12/1-21-(6-8), 12/1-21-36, 12/1-20-4.

Keywords:apple; pomological apple varieties; vitamin C; group B vitamins; rutin; fermentation; ciders

Funding. The research was carried out with the financial support of the Kuban Science Foundation in the framework of the scientific project No. MFI-20.1/100.

Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Contribution. Study concept and design – Ageyeva N.M., Ulyanovskaya E.V.; data collection and analysis – Khrapov A.A., Chernutskaya E.A., Tikhonova A.N.; writing the text, editing – Ageyeva N.M., Shirshova A.A., Ulyanovskaya E.V.; approval of the final version of the article, responsibility for the integrity of all parts of the article – all authors.

For citation: Ageyeva N.M., Shirshova A.А., Khrapov A.А., Tikhonova A.N., Ulyanovskaya E.V., Chernutskaya E.А. Vitamin content of apple juices and ciders made from them. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2023; 92 (2): 116–23. DOI: (in Russian)


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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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