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5 . 2023

Contemporary approaches to the assessment of energy intake and energy expenditure in athletes


Assessment and interpreting of the energy expenditure (EE) in highly skilled athletes are important components of an effective training and performance prediction. Each component of EE (resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and physical activity energy expenditure) is closely related to dietary patterns, the intensity and duration of physical activity, as well as a number of other factors that affect the functional state of athletes. Despite the importance of EE in the training process, coaches and athletes often do not take EE into account, which reduces the objectivity of assessing athletes’ functional state.

The purpose of this research was to summarize the recent information on the structure of EE and energy consumption in athletes.

Material and methods. The search and analysis of publications was carried out using the PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, eLIBRARY databases, mainly for the last 10 years, using the search keywords: rest energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, physical activity energy expenditure, energy intake, total energy expenditure, athletes.

Results. This overview includes information on the components of total energy expenditure, such as rest energy expenditure, thermic effect of food and physical activity energy expenditure, as well as generalized information on the factors affecting the variability of their values and methods for assessing one or another type of energy expenditure. International nutritional recommendations regarding the level of physical activity of athletes are systematized, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of methods for studying energy consumption and total energy expenditure are presented.

Conclusion. Combined study of energy intake and energy expenditure will help athletes avoid the negative impact of energy deficiency on performance, and the correct construction of the training process with the maintenance of adequate energy consumption will have a positive impact on the performance and recovery processes after intensive physical exertion.

Keywords:rest energy expenditure; thermic effect of food; physical activity energy expenditure; energy intake; total energy expenditure; athletes

Funding. The study was carried out at the expense of subsidies for the implementation of State Assignment No. GR 1021051201877-3-3.1.8 (2022-2026).

Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Contribution. The concept and design of the study – all authors; collection, analysis of the material, table formation, data visualization, writing the text – Bushmanova E.A.; editing – Lyudinina A.Yu.; approval of the final version of the article, responsibility for the integrity of all parts of the article – all authors.

For citation: Bushmanova E.A., Lyudinina A.Yu. Contemporary approaches to the assessment of energy intake and energy expenditure in athletes. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2023; 92 (5): 16–27. DOI: (in Russian)


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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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