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6 . 2020

Analysis of adequacy of actual nutrition for athletes at training camps

Abstract

An increase in special performance in elite sports requires optimization of the metabolic parameters of the organism at all stages of the annual training cycle. In this regard, it is relevant to analyze the adequacy of the actual nutrition of athletes, taking into account the energy expenditures of training loads in different seasons of the year.

The aim of this study was to analyze the integral adequacy and balance of the main and essential components of the diet of athletes in different seasonal periods of the annual training cycle.

Material and methods. 20 highly qualified road cyclists (the average age 22.4±0.7 years) have been examined. Individual energy expenditures of the subjects has been determined, the actual nutrition of athletes was studied by the method of 24-hour dietary recall. In different seasons of the year, in the conditions of training camps, 1540 dietary rations of athletes have been analyzed over 5 years. The study of the energy balance and the adequacy of the actual nutrition was carried out using the developed author’s automated system “FP Diet”.

Results. The average daily energy consumption of cyclists at different stages of the annual training cycle ranged from 4503±69 to 4646±88 kcal, which indicates that athletes belong to one of the energy-intensive sports. The calorie intake practically satisfied the average daily energy expenditures, however, the low values of the integral indicator of adequacy (43.2% for the winter-spring season and 60.0% for the summer-autumn season) indicated significant imbalances in the actual diet for the main and essential nutritients, especially noticeable in the groups of vitamins and fatty acids. Against the background of insufficient consumption of vegetable oils, which causes a lack of monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet, an excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids, a deficiency of vitamins B1 and B2, a lack of vitamin C in the winter-spring period, as well as calcium and magnesium deficit have been revealed.

Conclusion. The qualitative characteristics of the diet of cyclists in different seasons of the annual training session does not meet the physiological needs of the organism. Optimization of athletes’ nutrition in terms of calorie content and chemical composition must be carried out taking into account the nature and methods of the training cycle, which have significant differences in the energy orientation of the loads and daily energy expenditures.

Keywords:nutrition, sports, summer-autumn, winter-spring seasons, road cyclists

Funding. The study did not have sponsorship.

Conflict of interest. Authors declare no conflict of interest.

For citation: Artemyevа N.K., Istomin A.V., Lavrichenko S.P., Kolesnikova A.A., Aldarova L.M. Analysis of adequacy of actual nutrition for athletes at training camps. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2020; 89 (6): 104-12. DOI: 10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10083 (in Russian)

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CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
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