To the content
1 . 2021

Modeling of iodine consumption with industrial processed foods made with iodized salt in the adults and pregnant in Armenia and Moldova


In recent years, significant progress has been made at the global level in eliminating of iodine deficiency. However, until recently, there has been a gap in methods for estimating iodine intake with industrially processed foods (IPF) produced with iodized salt (IS).

The aim of this work was to study the iodine consumption with IPF and kitchen salt by the adult population and pregnant women in Armenia and Moldova.

Material and methods. For modeling iodine consumption, a special matrix based on MS Excel spreadsheets was used, into which data on the average per capita daily consumption of the main IPF, salt content in IPF, the share of IPF produced with IS in the total volume of their consumption, percentage of households using IS, and the iodine content in salt according to the national standard were entered.

Results and discussion. The estimated average daily salt consumption per capita of the adult population of Armenia was 10.6 g. Due to the use of IS in 93% of households and in the production of 82% of bakery products, 7% of cheese, 83% of meat products, 44% of canned vegetables and 5% of pasta, iodine intake in adults was 149% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Bakery products and iodized kitchen salt were the main sources of iodine (66 and 70% of the RDA respectively), and the share of other IPF did not exceed 13%. In Moldova, salt consumption was 11.9 gper day. Due to the use of IS for the production of 50% bakery products, 12% of canned vegetables and 20% of pasta, iodine consumption in adults in Moldova amounted to 74% of RDA almost entirely due to bakery products and kitchen salt (37 and 35% of the RDA respectively). The median urinary iodine concentration indicated adequate iodine intake in both countries and was significantly higher in Armenia (242yg/L) than in Moldova (136 yg/L). A planned 30% reduction in salt intake may lead to an inadequate reduction in iodine intake in pregnant women.

Conclusion. Adequate iodine intake among the adult population of Armenia and Moldova is ensured mainly through the use of IS in households and in the production of bakery products.

Keywords:iodine, iodized salt, Armenia, Moldova, bakery products, industrial processed foods

Funding. Provided by the grant from «Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation» (USA).

Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgements. Authors would like to express their gratitude to J. Knowles, J. Gorstein, K. Sudzhyan and A. Shirvanyan for active participation in the project and assistance in the collection and processing of primary data.

For citation: Gerasimov G.A., Turcan L., Aslanian H., Salaru I., Demiscan D. Modeling of iodine consumption with industrial processed foods made with iodized salt in the adults and pregnant in Armenia and Moldova. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2021; 90 (1): 49-56. DOI: (in Russian)


1. Global Scorecard of iodine nutrition in 2020: optimal iodine intake in 131 countries. IDD Newslett. 2020; 48 (2): 11–2.

2. Zimmermann M., Boelaet K. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015; 3 (4): 286–95. DOI:

3. Iodine and health. Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders safely through salt iodization: a statement by the World Health Organization. Geneva, 1994: 15 p. (WHO/NUT/94.4)

4. Guideline: fortification of food-grade salt with iodine for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorders. WHO, 2014: 54 p.

5. WHO, UN Children’s Fund, International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. A guide for programme managers. 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007: 96 p.

6. Knowles J., van der Haar F., Shehata M., Gerasimov G., Bimo B., Cavenagh B., et al. Iodine intake through processed food: Case Studies from Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 2010–2015. Nutrients. 2017; 9: 797. DOI:

7. Salt as a vehicle for fortification. Report of a WHO expert consultation on salt as a vehicle for fortification. Luxembourg 21–22 March 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.

8. WHO Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2012: 46 p.

9. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2019; 393: 1958–72. DOI.

10. Knowles J., Houston R., Codling K., Gorstein J. Guide to estimating the use of iodized salt in industrially processed foods. IDD Newslett. 2018; 46 (2): 17–8.

11. Hutchings N., Aghajanova E., Baghdasaryan S.A, Qefoyan M., Sullivan C., He X., et al. A stratified cross-sectional clusters model survey of iodine nutrition in Armenia after a decade of universal salt iodization. Endocr Pract. 2019; 25 (10): 987–93. DOI:

12. D’Elia L., Obreja G., Ciobanu A., Breda J., Jewell J., Cappuccio F. Sodium, potassium and iodine intake, in a national adult population sample of the Republic of Moldova. Nutrients. 2019; 11: 2896. DOI:

13. Armenia STEPS Survey, 2016–2017. Fact Sheet. URL:

14. The food environment description in cities in Eastern Europe and Central Asia – Republic of Moldova. Technical report Republic of Moldova, October 2017. WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2017.

15. van der Haar F., Gerasimov G., Tyler V., Timmer A. Universal salt iodization in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS) Region during the decade 2000–09: experiences, achievements, and lessons learned. Food Nutr Bull. 2011; 32 (4 Suppl): 175–294. DOI:

16. Rosstat. Food consumption in urban and rural households in the Russian Federation in 2018. URL: (in Russian)

17. Gerasimov G., van der Haar, F. Lazarus J. Iodine deficiency prevention strategies in South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia: 2009–2016. IDD Newslett. 2017; 46 (2): 12–3.

18. Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 6 August 2008. Proposal P1003: Mandatory iodine fortification for Australia approval report. Canberra, 2008: 203 p.

19. Blankenship J., Garrett G. Khan N., De-Regil L., Spohrer R. Gorstein J. Effect of iodized salt on organoleptic properties of processed foods: a systematic review. J Food Sci Technol. 2018; 55 (9): 3341–52. DOI:

20. Charlton K., Probst Y., Kiene G. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme. Nutrients. 2016; 8 (11): 701. DOI:

21. Salt reduction and iodine fortification strategies in public health: report of a joint technical meeting convened by the World Health Organization and The George Institute for Global Health in collaboration with the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Global Network, Sydney, Australia, March 2013. WHO, 2014: 50 p.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Medicine today

II Конференция онкологов Московской области Москва, 4 июня 2021 года Подмосковье в настоящее время - это регион, переживающий бурный прирост населения и активную урбанизацию. Эти процессы требуют изменений в организации оказания медицинской помощи, в первую очередь,...

Приглашаем вас принять активное участие в работе XII Международной конференции "Актуальные аспекты экстракорпорального очищения крови в интенсивной терапии". Мероприятие пройдет 28-29 мая 2021 года в онлайн-формате. Конференция организована при поддержке Министерства...

Конференция РАРЧ "Репродуктивное здоровье и эпидемия COVID-19: год спустя" 8 июня 2021 г., онлайн Коронавирусная инфекция внесла существенные коррективы в работу специалистов в области репродуктивного здоровья. За прошедший год мы преодолели множество совершенно необычных...

Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»