Formation of the organoleptic profile of sugar cookies with a modified fat component


Currently, as part of solving the problems of improving the quality and safety of food, research is underway on the introduction of oleogels into foodstuffs to replace solid fats, which contain saturated and trans-isomeric fatty acids. However, such a replacement leads to a change in the organoleptic characteristics of food.

The aim of the work was to identify the characteristics that affect the difference in the perception of cookie descriptors baked using hard fat and oleogels.

Material and methods. Three batches of sugar cookies samples with different fat components were produced for the study: butter cookies; cookies based on oleogel structured with beeswax; and cookies based on oleogel structured with combinations of beeswax fractions. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out by two methods: the triangle method according to ISO 4120:2004 and the free-choice profiling method according to ISO 13299-2015. In this case, the profile was derived statistically, by means of a generalized Procrustes analysis.

Results and discussion. The analyze of cookies samples using the triangle method showed there was no noticeable difference between the control cookies samples and cookies with oleogel structured with beeswax, but there were significant differences with cookies baked with the use of oleogel structured with a combination of fractions. Generalized Procrustes analysis was used to interpret the results of the descriptor profile analysis. It was shown that differences in perception between samples were due to the severity of the following descriptors: Creamy flavour, Fat flavour, Floral flavour, Waxy flavour, Shape. A close correlation has been established between individual descriptors characterizing the samples under study.

Conclusion. The data obtained as a result of the conducted studies allow not only to judge the acceptability of the use of oleogels in cookies from an organoleptic point of view, but also to identify individual characteristics that affect the perception of cookie samples. In the future, this information can be used to optimize the formulation of finished cookies containing oleogels in order to change the organoleptic profile in a targeted manner.

Keywords:oleogels; cookies; sensory profile; descriptor-profile analysis; beeswax; beeswax fractions

Funding. The study was carried out with the support of the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 19-16-00113).

Conflict of interest. Authors declare no clear or potential conflicts of interest.

For citation: Frolova Yu.V., Sobolev R.V., Sarkisyan V.A., Kochetkova A.A. Formation of the organoleptic profile of sugar cookies with a modified fat component. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2022; 91 (2): 93–8. DOI: (in Russian)


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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Medicine today

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