1 . 2013

Biologically active substances of plant origin. Flavonols and flavones: prevalence, dietary sourses and consumption

Flavonoids are the most numerous group of natural polyphenolic compounds, the secondary metabolites of plants that may play an important role in human health protection. Flavonols and flavones constitute the main two classes of flavonoids, whose antioxidant properties and high biological activity have been proofed both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes data, concerning the structure, occurrence and content of the main flavonols (quercetin, kaempherol, myricetin, isorhamnetin) and flavones (apigenin, luteolin) in some most widely consumed foodstuffs, including vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, beverages and other products of plant origin. The products with high content of these biologically active food compounds – the major dietary sources of them – are noted. Forms of flavonols and flavones more often distributed among edible plants are characterized and some of their known glycosides occurred in foods are enumerated. Some peculiarities, characteristic to flavonols and flavones glycosilation (O- and/or C-glycosides formation) are described. The data for flavonol and flavone glycosides composition (profiles) of some commonly consumed commodities rich by these flavonoids (onions, cabbage, apples at al.) are shown. Information about levels of daily dietary intake of total and individual flavonols and flavones in several countries is presented. The questions about dietary habits and lifestyle factors and the contribution of certain foods to flavonols and flavones in daily dietary consumption values are also discussed.
Hygiene of nutrition

About flavouring substances and flavouring preparations regulation in the field of manufacturing of flavourings and foodstuffs

In article are given substantiation for modification of contemporary list of biologically active substances with undesirable toxicological qualities (namely included in this list of menthofuran, methyleugenol (4-Allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene), teucrin A, capsaicin, estragol1 (-Allyl-4-methoxybenzene) and excluded from the list of quinine, santonin, berberin) and developing the list of plants - natural sources of flavourings substances. The new criteria of European Union for including into the relevant for using in/on foodstuff list of flavouring substances, which was published in the Comission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 872/2012 concerning flavourings, listed the 11 flavouring substances for which have been established indexes of foodstuffs in manufacturing, which there are could using and criteria of their safety (caffeine, theobromine, neohesperidin dihydrocalcone, rebaudioside A, d-camphor, three quinine salts (FL 14.011, FL 14.152 and FL 14.155), glycyrrhizic acid and its ammoniated form, ammonium chloride, discussed the possibility of using R- and S-isomers of flavouring substances and L- and D-forms of aminoacids for preparing of flavours, are discussed. Improving of the system of safety using of flavourings in Russian Federation, harmonized with demands of European Union and FAO/WHO, are, at first, connected with the necessity of reevaluation of the list flavouring substances, which could be use in/on foodstuff, developing of list of the plants – natural sources of flavourings substances and preparations and regulations of using flavourings preparations which can include biologically active substances.

Rapid methods for the genus Salmonella bacteria detection in food and raw materials

The article considers sanitary and epidemiological aspects and the impact of Salmonella food poisoning in Russia and abroad. The main characteristics of the agent (Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteritidis) are summarized. The main sources of human Salmonella infection are products of poultry and livestock (poultry, eggs, dairy products, meat products, etc.). Standard methods of identifying the causative agent, rapid (alternative) methods of analysis of Salmonella using differential diagnostic medium (MSRV, Salmosyst, XLT4-agar, agar-Rambach et al.), rapid tests Singlepath®-Salmonella and PCR (food proof Salmonella) in real time were stated. Rapid tests provide is a substantial (at 24–48 h) reducing the time to identify Salmonella.

Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits


The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in thedomestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12,2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53,2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids.


Enrichment effect of vitamin-deficient diet of rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 on vitamin biomarkers and antioxidant status

Using the model of combined vitamin deficiency based on 5-fold reduction of the amount of vitamin mixture in semi-synthetic diet and on vitamin E exclusion from the mixture, the influence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on vitamin and antioxidant status has been investigated. The enrichment of rat diet with PUFA was achieved by replacing of sunflower oil (4,5% of the diet) on linseed oil. This substitute led to ω-3 PUFA elevation from 0,03 to 2,4 g per 100 g of food and PUFA and saturated fatty acids diet ratio increased from 1,3 to 1,9. The diet treatment with PUFA did not affect blood plasma retinol concentration and total vitamin A (retinol palmitate and retinol) rat liver content, while liver retinol significantly 1,5-fold elevated. Despite of preliminary equation of tocopherols content in vegetable oils (up to 60 IU per 100 g by adding dl-alphatocopherol to linseed oil) the consuming of linen oil deteriorated animal vitamin E supply. The liver alpha-tocopherol content significantly decreased by 14%, its blood plasma concentration insignificantly decreased by 26%, while the amount of β- and γ-tocopherol significantly increased in 5,4-fold. At the same deprivation of vitamin D in the diet of rats treated with linseed oil 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration was 1,3-fold higher compared with the animals treated with sunflower oil, but the difference did not reach significance reliable. In this case, this index had significant differences from that of the receiving adequate diet rats in control group, having 2-fold higher concentration of vitamin D transport form in blood plasma. PUFA enrichment of the combined vitamin-deficit diet did not affect liver level of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2. Contrary to the assumptions, the enrichment with PUFA of vitamin-deficient diet did not lead to a further increase of liver MDA level and a decrease of liver ascorbic acid content, which is typical for animals in combined vitamin deficiency. The deterioration of vitamin E status at enriched with PUFA vitamin-deficient diet requires the additional intake of this vitamin for maintaining of vitamin E sufficiency.
Diet treatment

Influence of dietotherapy on body composition in patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2

The aim of the study was to evaluate indexes of body composition in patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 during the application of a standard hypocaloric diet. Material and methods: in study were included 290 patients aged of 49±13 years. Patients were divided in two groups: 1) patients with obesity (n=145), and 2) patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (n=145). Within 2 weeks, all patients received standard hypocaloric diet (1500 kcal/day). Dynamics of anthropometric parameters and indices of body composition with using of bioimpedance analyzer «Inbody 720» were investigated for all patients before and after 2 weeks of dietary intervention. Results: During the diet there was a positive dynamics of the anthropometric parameters, which showed the reduce of body weight and body BMI in patients of first group: from 116,9±1,8 kg to 110,9±1,7 kg (p<0,001) and from 42,1±0,6 kg/m2 to 39,8±0,6 kg/m2 (p<0,001), while in the second group – from 112,2±1,8 do106, mass index 6±1,6 kg (p<0,001) and from 41,6±0,6 kg/m2 to 39,4±0,5 kg/m2 (p<0,001), respectively, without statistically significant differences between groups. Reducing the amount of fat in first group was on average 5,6 kg; and in second – an average of 3,7 kg (p<0,001). Changes of other components of body composition also were observed in patients: the area of visceral fat in obese patients decreased from 224,9±4,5 cm2 up to 209,4±4,7 cm2 (p<0,001) in patients with type 2 diabetes – from 237,6±4,2 cm3 up to 226,8±4,3 cm3 (p<0,001). Study showed that controlled reduction of a diet caloric value can significantly decrease body weight in patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, mainly due to the fat component, and allow to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular diseases and metabolic disturbance.

Features to improve health care in «Dietology» profile in Voronezh Region

Recent years, restructuring of the health care to the population, including a complex of measures to improve the human resources policy in health, spurring the practice of the disciplines to public health care, turning, organizing 3-tier health care system, including the profile «nutrition» is carried out in Voronezhregion. Analysis of security by dietitians, dietary nurses and hi-tech medical equipment is carried out. Set of measures to developing interaction between health care institutions (accordingly Health Ministry order N 474 from 24.06.2010) was worked up. Implementation of order of medical care in «Dietology» profile, highquality dietitians work at all stages of 3-tier system of organization of medical care will make an unconditional contribution to the overall development strategy of the national health care.

Contemporary dietotherapy of the irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional disease of the gastrointestinal tract. This highly prevalent condition is best diagnosed by assessing the constellation of symptoms with which patients present to their physicians. Because some critics have previously questioned whether irritable bowel syndrome and other functional gastrointestinal disorders truly exist because they do not have defining structural features, the Rome Foundation fostered the use of symptom-based criteria for universal use. In most cases treatment is reduced to symptomatic therapy because a lot of unknown in pathogenesis by irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome leads to decrease of quality of life of the patients and could be one of the reasons of patients’ disability. Food is believed by patients promotes symptoms and the diet or avoiding specific food can reduce symptoms. Possible role of different food and microbiota in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome, as well as the data from randomized, controlled clinical trials dedicated to the effects of diet in irritable bowel syndrome are summarized and discussed in this review. The efficacy of the diet, enriched by fiber, prebiotics, probiotics, peppermint oil, curcumin and vitamin B6 in irritable bowel syndrome patients was shown in numerous studies. In some studies restriction in consumption of fermented carbohydrates, coffee and alcohol, as well as diet with elimination IgG-sensed food was also shown to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome. Food intolerances, defined as non-toxic non-immune adverse reactions to food, include reactions to bioactive chemicals in foods and metabolic reactions to poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates. New dietary approaches like polyunsaturated fatty acids intake correction and the low tryptophan intake are discussed.
Prophylactic nutrition

Analysis of interrelation between lifestyle, diet and anthropometrical characteristics and health of persons, working in the conditions of especially harmful production

Objective: To estimate the relationship between lifestyle, anthropometrical characteristics, nutrition and health of persons working with sources of ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods: 158 persons, selected by sampling method in compliance with the representation were examined. Nutritional status was assessed by frequency method. Anthropometrical measurements were performed under standard conditions with the use of scales and stadiometer with subsequent calculation of body mass index (BMI), and a tape to measure circumference of waist and hips. The level of physical activity was assessed based on a survey of time spent by respondents on the various types of physical activity on weekdays and weekends. Questionnaires included special sections that characterize the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health status, habits, and occupations by physical culture and sport. The data were processed by the computer program SPSS-18. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity at the age of 40 years was 70%. Also we was found that 98,7% of respondents have a low and very low energy expenditure. The actual nutrition of the surveyed contingent includes elements that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
Nutrition of sportsmеn

Content of mineral elements in the diet of students of Physical education faculty

Research of the diet of students of the Faculty of Physical Education found discrepancy of caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms accompanied by a deficiency of some mineral elements. Thus, this research found discrepancy of a diet in caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms. Calorie deficiency in both groups is caused for lack of all macro- and micronutrients, but mostly for lack of carbohydrates with an average glycemic index, fruit, and vegetables that have

prebiotic properties and mineral-rich elements. Deficiency in the diet of young men 9,6% of the total protein and 23,5% of carbohydrates was accompanied for lack 15,5% of calcium. In the group of girls the results showed a decrease of the required amounts of calcium, magnesium and iron of 36,4; 7,5 and 1,5% respectively, which was displayed against a background of reducing the consumption of the total protein 25,1 and 36,0% of carbohydrates. As a result, basic nutrition of students practicing sports requires rationalization and adjustment. To improve the biological value of the diet it is advisable for students to use daily dairy products and other sources of animal protein in their diets. It is also necessary to introduce fruit and vegetables as a source of dietary fibers and mineral elements. Created in both groups deficiency of calcium and biologically high-grade proteins of animal origin can be eliminated by various dairy products in which calcium and phosphorus are in easily digestible form and in a balanced quantity. Despite the considerable amount of calcium in many foods (meat, bread, cereals, vegetables) calcium is assimilated with difficulty from these products. The exception is the calcium of milk, curd, cheese and other dairy products. The ration between calcium and phosphorus in milk is 1:1–1,4:1. For example, taking 0,5 liters of milk provides 600 mg of assimilable calcium intake.

Марина Гасановна Керимова (к 70-летию со дня рождения)


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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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