Nutrimetabolomics – a new stage of biochemistry of nutrition. The role of nutriproteomic analysis
Nutrition is one of the most critical aspects of human health and longevity. The idea of balanced nutrition supposes adequate supply of energy, macro- and micronutrients and furthermore normal functioning of specific mechanisms of nutrition. Contemporary biochemistry based on high performance methods, which assume increasing biological information. Developing of proteomic and metabolomic methods gives an opportunity to investigation macroand micronutrients mechanisms of action. This was an incitement to formation new directions in biochemistry of nutrition: nutriproteomics and nutrimetabolomics.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of nutritional patterns in pathogenesis and treatment
GERD is a common gastrointestinal disorder which has a great impact on patient’s quality of life. Despite of the fact that this disease depends on patient’s diet there is no evidence-based recommendations for patients experiencing GERD symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of diet on disease’s manifestations and progression. Systematic review in PubMed/Medline databases was performed with keywords food, dietary patterns, nutrients, nutrition, fat, proteins, carbohydrates, beverages, salt, fiber в комбинации с gastroesophageal reflux, GERD. 197 publications were found, 54 selected according to the following criteria: the article should contain data of clinical observations, or to be a meta-analysis; group characteristics, study design, and results be available for the analysis. The review contains data concerning influence of protein, fat, carbohydrate intake, some beverages and carminatives on clinical manifestations of GERD. The literature data about impact of diet on the manifestations of GERD are controversial, that makes impossible to produce the evidence-based recommendations concerning diet modifications for GERD patients. There is a need for prospective studies evaluating correction of diet on the course of the disease.
Study on association of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with risk of obesity, body fat mass and physical activity
Obesity is a multifactorial disease which depends on the interaction between genome and environment. Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) regulates lipid transport, intestinal absorption and metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the interrelation between the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism, body mass index and body fat mass and to study distribution of genotypes and alleles frequencies of FABP2 gene in athletes and individuals who are not involved in sports. 315 athletes of different sport disciplines and levels and 612 controls (predominantly students) participated in the study. Genotyping for the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism was performed by PCR. Body composition was analyzed by bioimpedance method. The study did not confirm the association of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with the risk of obesity and body fat mass. However, the frequency of the Thr54 allele was significantly higher in elite stayers (50,0%, p=0,025) and combat athletes (46,2%, p=0,013) in comparison with controls (32,2%). Thus, FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism is associated with the predisposition to endurance athletic performance.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition
Correction of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury with magnesium salts in magnesium-deficient rats
The effect of Mg L-asparaginate (Mg-L-Asp), Mg chloride (MgCl2) and Mg sulfate (MgSO4) on the severity of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in Mg-deficient rats has been evaluated. To induce Mg deficiency, twenty-eight rats were placed on a low Mg diet (Mg content < 15 mg/kg) and demineralized water for 10 weeks. Twelve control rats were fed a basal control diet (Mg content = 500 mg/kg) and water (with Mg content 20 mg/l) for equal duration. On day 49 of low Mg diet, Mg-deficient rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) group that continued to receive low Mg diet; 2) low Mg diet plus oral MgSO4; 3) low Mg diet plus oral Mg-L-Asp and 4) low Mg diet plus oral MgCl2 (50 mg of Mg per kg of body weight). Isoproterenol was injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg BW, twice, at an interval of 24 hours) on the day 70 of the study, when plasma and erythrocyte Mg level in rats fed a low Mg diet were significantly decreased by 47% and 45% compared to intact animals. Twentyfour hours after second injection of isoproterenol, tests for activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were run and histopathological study was carried out. Administration of isoproterenol to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma CK, LDH and AST, however, analyses in Mg deficient group demonstrated more dramatically increased activity of CK and AST compared to control rats (3,06 and 4,67 fold in Mg-deficient group vs. 1,91 and 3,92 fold in intact group). Increased leakage of cardiac injury markers was concomitant to increased volume of fuchsinophilic cardiomyocytes (54,2±1,7% in Mg-deficient group and 38,9±1,9% in intact group, p<0,05). However, pretreatment with of MgCl2, MgSO4 and Mg-L-Asp during 21 days favorably decreased sensitivity of myocardium to isoproterenolinduced ischemic injury. All evaluated salts significantly decreased myocyte marker enzymes as well as protected myocardium against isoproterenol-induced histopathological perturbations.
The effect of carbon tetrachloride poisoning on the activity of digestive proteases in rats and correction of the violations with vegetable oils
The results of the study of activity of digestive proteases (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin) in homogenates of stomach, pancreas and duodenum in experimental animals have been presented. Rats were exposed to intoxication with carbon tetrachloride (subcutaneous administration of a 50% oil solution of ССl4 in thedose of 0,5 ml per 100 g body weight) for three days and then they were given analysed oils (black nut, walnut and flax oil) intragastrically by gavage at a dose of 0,2 ml per day within 23 days. Pepsin level in gastric mucosa homogenates and chymotrypsin activity in pancreatic homogenates were determined by method of N.P. Pyatnitskiy based on on the ability of enzymes to coagulate dairyacetate mixture, respectively, at 25 °C and 35 °C. Trypsin activity in homogenates of pancreatic was determined by method of Erlanger – Shaternikova colorimetrically. It has been established that intoxication with CCl4 decreased the synthesis of proteolytic enzymes of the stomach (by 51%) and pancreas (by 70–78%). Injections of analysed vegetable oils to animals contributed to the normalization of proteolytic enzymes synthesis. The conclusion that there are prospects of using the analysed vegetable oils containing large quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 and ω-6) for the correction of detected biochemical abnormalities has been done.
Cholesterol-lowering effect of the regulatory peptide Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu
In the present paper anticoagulant-fibrinolytic effects of the peptide Pro-GlyPro-Leu in rats (370–500 g body weight) who consumed fatty foods with excess of saturated fatty acids (wheat flour and bread – 35%, sugar – 10%, margarine hydrogenated fats, mayonnaise, cheese – 35% and offals – 10%, cholesterol – 1%, dry food – 9%) has been established. The duration of the animals on the diet was 15 days. The experimental animals intranasally obtained peptide (200 μg/kg body weight per volume of 0,02 ml per 200 g body weight) 11 times (daily except weekends). Animals from the control group intranasally received instead of peptide its vehicle (0,85% solution of NaCl) at the same time and in the same amount. It has been shown that daily nasal administration of the regulatory tetrapeptide under fatty food intake for the entire period of the experiment has a positive effect on lipid metabolism. It warned the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia, an increase in body weight, normalized disturbed lipid profile, blood cholesterol level. In addition, its administration also restored functional status of anticoagulation system and decreased elevated degree of blood coagulation to normal values. Possible mechanism of hypocholesterolemic activity of peptide can be explained by its ability to interact with receptors of blood or brain cells, and through a series of reactions mediated to reduce blood cholesterol levels. Thanks to the anti-platelet activity glyprolines effectively improves endothelial function and reduces the risk of blood clots in the blood vessels, providing improved rheological properties of blood and preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial wall.
Markers of immune inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity
Aim: to investigate cytokine profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with different degree of obesity. 154 patients with type 2 DM were examined (55,2% women, 44,8% men). All patients received standard antihyperglycemic therapy; mean age was 46,1±0,82 years, mean duration of disease was 7,2±1,43 years. The patients were divided into the following groups according to their degree of obesity: grade I obesity (n=50), grade II obesity (n=51), grade III obesity (n=53). 18 healthy volunteers (38,9% men, 61,1% women, mean age 41,2±3,2 years, BMI – 22,1±1,8 kg/m2). The patients and healthy volunteers were underwent biochemical analysis, determination of the cytokine profile and estimation of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, TGF-β1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It has been shown that increase of the body weight excess in patients with type 2 DM and obesity is accompanied with elevation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, TGF-β1) along with the reduction of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4). The TNF-α concentration in patients with grade I obesity was 2,8 fold higher than in the comparison group , in patients with grade II and III – 4 and 5,7 fold respectively. A similar trend occurred in TGF-β1 level: 2 fold increase – when I obesity, 3,3 and 4 fold – respectively for grade II and III. Unidirectional dynamic changes of IL-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes reflects 1,3 fold increase in its level under obesity I grade, 1,7 fold – under II degree and 2,2 fold – under III degree compared to the level in the comparison group. IL-4 level in patients with diabetes and obesity is strikingly contrasted with the index of the comparison group and progressively reduced: 1,7 fold – when grade I obesity, 3,6 fold- with grade II, 7,7 fold – in the grade III. The data obtained indicates that cytokine profile play a critical part in pathogenesis of type 2 DM in association with obesity.
Using of a specialized fermented milk product on the basis of soybeans in cardiology practice
The article is dedicated to the use of a specialized fermented milk product on the basis of soybeans in cardiology practice. 45 patients of both sexes (27 men and 18 women) aged 38 to 69 years (mean age 53,7±3,1 years) who underwent macrofocal myocardial infarction and abide in the acute period and the period of early rehabilitation have been observed. The data obtained by the comparison of the dynamics of clinical, laboratory and functional parameters in patients, strongly suggests the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of the basic treatment by anti-atherogenic diet with fermented soy drink, enriched with magnesium salts, water-soluble forms of β-carotene and α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and selenium. 30–35 day inclusion of a fermented soy-based product in comprehensive treatment was accompanied by a marked lipid lowering effect, compared with the standard anti-atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol level in patients from the intervention group (n=21) decreased by 36,3 per cent, thus reaching the standard level, the corresponding figure in the control group (n=24) decreased by 24,7 per cent (the difference is statistically significant). Total number of rhythm and conduction disorders in patients receiving product was 1,43 per patient, while it reached 1,83 per patient on the basic therapy and a standard diet. The vast majority were beats, no cases of ventricular fibrillation and one case of atrioventricular block took place in patients from the experimental group. Paroxysmal and atrial fibrillation in the control group of patients were recorded 2 fold more often than in the main group. In addition, three cases of ventricular fibrillation were reported in patients from the control group. Early usage of soy drink 3 fold reduced the incidence of complications in the 10–14 day from the moment of macrofocal myocardial infarction. The frequency of angina attacks per week per patient more significantly reduced under nutritional support, compared with patients receiving standard therapy and diet. The decrease of mean number of nitroglycerin tablets taken per week for one person from the experimental group was equal to 9,0 fold, and in the control group – 2,43, this demonstrates a significant strengthening of the effectiveness of basic therapy with early administration of soy product. The recovery of ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram in patients receiving soy product was significantly decreased compared with those receiving standard therapy and anti-atherogenic diet, the degree of reduction in the intervention group was 43,3%, while in the control group – 27,5%. These data indicate that the use of soy product in a comprehensive early rehabilitation therapy of patients with macrofocal myocardial infarction significantly reduces the risk of arrhythmias and conduction.
Hygiene of nutrition
The prevalence of anemia among children and women of reproductive age in Kazakhstan and basis of its prevention
Results of the study on the prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age and children, residing in the various regions of Kazakhstan, are presented in the article. Representational sampling which takes into account the divisional principle of medical service of children population in each of the 14th areas, Astana and Almaty cities has been implemented. Research involved participation of 1303 women at the age of 15–49 years, and of 1318 children, 353 (26,8%) of whom were in the age of 6 up to 23 months, and 985 (73,2%) were in the age range of 24–59 months. 89 women were pregnant, which constituted 6,8%. The average hemoglobin level in the blood of pregnant women was 11,1±1,6 g/dL, which was significantly lower compared to that of non-pregnant women, for whom the figure was 12,1±1,6 g/dL. The average level of hemoglobin in the blood of children in the age range of 6–23 months was 10,7±1,4 g/dL, and was significantly lower than that of children in the age range of 24–59 months, for whom the figure was, in average, 11,5±1,4 g/dL (p<0,05). The rate of prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women was 43,8%, among non-pregnant women – 39,0%, among children aged 6–59 months – 35,2%. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher in children aged 6–23 months (53,3%) compared with children aged 24–59 months (28,8%). As for degree of severity of anemia, mild form prevailed in all of the examined groups: children – 53,6%, pregnant women – 51,2% and non-pregnant – 77,2%. Moderate anemia was mostly diagnosed in children in the age range of 6 to 23 months and in pregnant women (50,5 and 43,6% relatively). Comprehensive program of prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia among children and women includes food fortification, supplementation of target groups with iron preparation and folic acid, food diversification, monitoring and evaluation of program execution, as well as training of medical students and medical staff with policies and strategies of struggle against iron-deficiency anemia.
Selenium content in meat and poultry in Orenburg Region
Selenium content in beef, pork and poultry from Orenburg Region has been investigated. Regions with low (beef <112 mcg/kg, pork – about 200 mcg/kg, poultry <127 mcg/kg), medium and high (beef>300 mcg/kg; pork – about 600 mcg/kg; poultry – 170–180 mcg/kg) selenium levels are indicated. Positive correlations between selenium content in meat and soil are demonstrated (beef/soil +0,558, р<0,001; pork/soil +0,557, р<0,001; poultry/soil +0,389, р<0,05). Meat contribution to selenium consumption is equal to: beef – 4,6%, pork – 6%, poultry – 2,6%.
Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties
The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14,1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12,1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11,05%), minimum – Kreolka (9,00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4,39), with the lowest acidity (2,51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade – 183,7 mg/100 g, the smallest – Ocharovanie – 110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144,9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722,2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789,8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864,5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765,6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7,92%, with a minimum of 6,30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9,90% – the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the highest pectin content. This determine the usefulness of new varieties of blackcurrant as fresh, as well as for production of functional foods.