Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances
Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performanceenhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, ‘classic’ anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing ‘designer’ steroids and other ‘newer’ molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and product ions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using ‘safe’ products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in the Netherlands and Germany.
Standards of nutrition for athletes in Germany
The Deutscher Olympische Sportbund (DOSB) founded recently an advisory board for German elite athlete nutrition, the ‘Arbeitsgruppe (AG) Ernahrungsberatung an den Olympiastutzpunkten’. The ‘Performance codex and quality criteria for the food supply in facilities of German elite sports’ have been established since1997. The biochemical equivalent (ATP) for the energy demand is calculated using the DLW (Double Labeled Water)-method on the basis of RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) and BMR (Basic Metabolic Rate) at sporttype specific exercises and performances. Certain nutraceutical ingredients for dietary supplements can be recommended. However, quality criteria for nutrition, cooking and food supply are defined on the basis of Health Food and the individual physiological/social-psychological status of the athlete. Especially food supplements and instant food have to be avoided for young athletes. The German advisory board for elite athlete nutrition publishes ‘colour lists’ for highly recommended (green), acceptable (yellow), and less recommended (red) food stuff.
E.L.I.S. (eburnameninelike indole structures), extracted from medicinal plants, as performance catalysts in sports
The main goal of this study is to describe the scientific basis of the beneficial effects of E.L.I.S. using, intended to improve motor coordination and muscular memory, optimizing the neuronal circuits throughout the entire body, involved in learning and doing sports. These effects, combined with the synergic action presented by these extracts (E.L.I.S.) when administered together with compounds of xanthine structure, also lead to improved blood circulation and glucose consumptionoptimizing the cellular metabolism, the production of neurotransmitters and the cognitive capacity and, therefore, the cerebral activity is reinforced in general both in the short term and the long term after administering them orally. 285 references of scientific literature relating to the E.L.I.S. are submitted on the basis of requests from email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.
20-hydroxyecdysone – plant adaptogen: an anabolic effect, possible use in sports nutrition
In the review the presentation about plant adaptogens – biologically active compounds is given. Its administration can help to achieve non-specific state of high resistance. The hypothetical mechanism of action: adaptogens are prostressors, reducing excessive increase of stress mediators in the following stress exposure. The features of adaptogenic effect of phytoecdysteroids, polyhydroxylated sterols, which are analogs of hormones of molting and metamorphosis of arthropodas, and are structurally similar to glucocorticoids on the example of the most widely studied phytoecdysteroid – 20-hydroxyecdysone – are described. The results of studies of anabolic action of 20-hydroxyecdysone in experiments on laboratory animals and the possible explanation (existing in the modern scientific literature) of the mechanism of this phenomenon are discussed. Scientific publication testifying on the application of phytoecdysteroids to remove chronic fatigue syndrome, reducing nerve and muscle fatigue, improve memory and attention processes are presented. The prospects of using the 20-hydroxyecdysone in the composition of food supplements and specialized products for athletes are discussed.
Anatomic, physiological and metabolic characteristics of young athletes
A rational approach to the organization of the training process, the competitive cycle, the recovery processes in the practice of child and youth sport requires knowledge of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the organism in these age periods. Exchange of amino acids in children of 6 to 12 years takes place very actively providing processes of growth and development. The children of preschool and early school age have tendency to hypoglycemia due to the imperfection of neurohumoral regulation of the mobilization of glycogen in the liver and increased utilization of glucose. Glucose utilization corresponds to its level in adults, ranging from 8 to 14 years of age. In children under the age of 10 an increased tendency to the formation of ketone bodies and ketosis is determined. Cholesterol levels increase rapidly after birth. From the period of puberty, girls have higher levels of total cholesterol, cholesterol in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) than boys. At the age of 6–12 years basal metabolic rate decreases to 1,3–1,5 kcal/kg/h. The muscular system increasingly develops. Functional features of the central nervous system is the predominance of excitation. Sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system prevails in heart’s activity. The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary system significantly increases in the structure of the endocrine glands. The sensitivity of many endocrine glands to the tropic hormone produced in the adenohypophysis increases. At the age of 8–12 years the role of epinephrine, norepinephrine and other biogenic amines especially increases. Period of puberty at the age of 13–17 years is associated with a significant change in the hormonal status of the organism. A pubertal growth spurt takes place, which occurs 1–2 years earlier in girls than in boys. As for the skeletal system the most pronounced growth of tubular bones of the limbs, spine and increase of bone density, muscle mass occurs. Heart rate decreases, while the duration of the expulsion phase of blood, cardiac output, respiratory functional parameters and red blood cells and hemoglobin concentrations increase. Endurance rises, physical activity is more economical than in childhood.
Features of organization of nutrition for young athletes
Organization of nutrition for young athletes implied a regime, which includes the distribution of meals throughout the day, the multiplicity of power an nutrients that must be strictly consistent with the mode of the training process. Athletes’ requirements in energy and nutrients vary considerably depending on the sport discipline and the amount of intense of physical activity. In the Institute of Nutrition of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences the recommended average daily sets of products, which are based on daily energy expenditure of young athletes, depending on the duration and intensity of physical activity in diverse kinds sports has been developed, these kits provide young athletes the necessary nutrients and micronutrients. In precompetitive period athletes must be given high physical activity and the diet should be mainly protein and fat-containing, with a high level of fiber. The training process should be intense for three days, then the athlete is advised to transfer to the carbohydrate-rich diet that is combined with a significant reduction in the intensity of trainings – glycogen super compensation. During competition period meal should be well digestible and low-volume. It must contain proteins of high biological values and carbohydrates in the required quantity. During this period the inclusion of new dishes and products in the menu for athletes is not desirable. During marathon the main aim is to recover the energy, water, mineral resources, and to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations. This is achieved in the following ways: carbohydrate intake with a relatively small amount of liquid, high product content of vitamins and minerals that helps to maintain the water-salt metabolism at the appropriate level, taking food in liquid form, in small portions. In the recovery period adequate nutrition should achieve the following objectives: to restore the acid-base and fluid and electrolyte balance, eliminate the effect of metabolic products (urea, lactic acid, ammonia, etc) associated with high physical activity; restore carbohydrate stores, provide plastic exchange, synthesis processes. The article also contains the basic sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the catering departments, selection of products and sports doctors.
Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes
The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age – 18,5±0,3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age – 26,8±0,7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70,7±1,7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90,9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1,22±0,03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1,06±0,03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7,1±0,4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25,1±1,7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0–25, 0–17, 15–67 and 42–75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p<0,05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2–3 fold rare (p<0,10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1,20±0,05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32,0±3,9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p<0,05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31,1%) and bobsledders (23,5%) was significantly (p<0,05) lower than among biathletes. Reduced serum level of one antioxidant (mainly beta-carotene) was most often recorded among persons engaged in bullet shooting (67%). The simultaneous lack of all three antioxidants was found only in freestylers and bobsledders (about 5%). Decreased level of antioxidants in blood serum in 40% of athletes was combined with vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but sometimes, conversely, their decline (vitamin A) to a level corresponding to the physiological needs. The revealed vitamin B2 deficiency may very likely indicate a lack of other B group vitamins. In this connection it is necessary to draw attention to the need to eliminate the existing vitamin deficiency, and not to focus exclusively on antioxidant vitamins. The most reasonable and at the same time a safe way to restore the lack of vitamins in the diet of most athletes is consistently including in the diet of athletes vitamin and mineral supplements and/or fortified foods, containing a complete set of all or at least most of vitamins, and in doses that are not excessive and are adequate to maintain optimum vitamin status.
Identification of genetic polymorphisms associated with overweight in athletes of winter sports
The identification of polymorphisms rs9939609 gene FTO, Trp64Arg ADRB3 and gene -866G> A UCP2 gene using multiplex allele-specific PCR hybridization- fluorescence detection in real time has been carried out in highly skilled athletes under the age of 30 years engaged in biathlon (n=25) and bobsleigh (n=28). The data on the frequency of allele risk of obesity has been obtained. The study of polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene in biathletes found that 30% of them are carriers of the risk allele of obesity (A). Among the bobsledder the frequency of allele A is slightly higher than in European populations and is 55,4%. The study of gene polymorphism Trp64Arg ADRB3 showed that the frequency of risk allele of obesity 64Arg in biathletes (14%) was slightly higher than in the European population and biathletes (5,4%). The results of the identification of polymorphism -866G> A gene UCP2 in biathletes and bobsledders, found the incidence of obesity risk allele, respectively, 52 and 58,7%.
Features of nutritive correction in swimmers under their training in midlands
The efficiency of the correction of diet using dietary supplements and special foods for athletes has been evaluated in 21 highly qualified swimmers, aged 17 to 26 years, during training cycle in midlands (altitude 1792 m above sea level). A personalized approach, consisting of the timely correction of individual programs of biomedical support, especially nutritional correction is directly linked to the performance of the functional state of an athlete in the most important period of training in midlands. At the end of training gathering the increase in AcT, ALT blood plasma activity by 18–42% and the reduction in the activity of creatine kinase by 26% in the normal ranges (p<0,05), as well as increased cortisol level by 35% was noted, indicating an adequate voltage of the body systems in response to the load presented in conjunction with the use of pharmacological correction. Hemoglobin concentration in blood increased by 5,6% (p<0,05). Assessment of body composition showed that by the end of the training cycle in midlands there was an increase of active cell mass by 3,5% (p<0,05). Significant (p<0,05) increase in oxygen consumption (by 7%) along with the improvement of swimming in the 200 m in the zone of anaerobic threshold (ANSP) (by 5% ) at the end of the training cycle demonstrate the effectiveness of the training process conditions and effective use of nutritional support.
Athletic drinks: body rehydration as a vital aspect
106 students of the Faculty of Physical Education and athletes who train at the center of power arts (aged 18 to 30 years) have been investigated. The relation between the amount of lost and consumed liquid during physical activity has been studied. The amount of fluid lost was determined by the method of measuring the body mass of an athlete before and after the workout. The kinds of liquids used for eliminating dehydration have been analyzed. It has been revealed that while doing some physical activity and sports most of those being tested don’t restore the lost liquid volume (with an average weight loss of 1,15 kg the amount of fluids they drunk was 0,91 l). In the given research the interrelation between the body weight and the lost liquid amount, and between the lost liquid amount and the kind of sports has not been exposed. Liquid loss of athletes in the medium intensive training process during the period of 1,5 h at the ambient temperature 21–22 °C constituted on average 1,53% of the body weight and didn’t depend on the kind of sports. Despite the advantages of the athletic drinks are evident, the share of their consumption among the athletes in Russia is negligibly small. The great majority of respondents, namely 72%, use common or mineral water to restore the liquid. Only 6% of those being tested consume specialized athletic drinks.
Medical and biological basis of the recipe of whey-containing rehydrating beverage for the athletes
According to the results of the physic-chemical research the composition of new isotonic rehydrating beverage has been presented and its nutritional and energy value has been calculated. As opposed to other sport drinks of this kind, a part of water in the new product is substituted by whey. From the physic-chemical standpoint whey is a complicated dispersed system in which hydrated proteins are in the form of colloidal solution, lipids are finely emulsified lipoprotein particles, carbohydrate and mineral components are close to the composition in the whole milk. Natural milk whey complex of macro- and trace elements (phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, iodine, zinc, copper, selenium, etc.), most of which are in chelated form, have high biological value and bioavailability for humans. The content of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids of whey increases the nutritional value of the beverage. Natural sugar syrups – containing of lingonberry, cranberry and rosehip were used to flavor the drink. The new beverage osmolarity is in the limits of 280–350 mmole/l, which allows classifying it as an isotonic sport drink. Natural ingredients and moderate carbohydrate, lipid content, and relatively low energy value enable to recommend this beverage to the athletes of any specialization without any restrictions.
Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress
The effect of nutritional correction (a diet high in foods with antioxidant content) on blood parameters in laboratory animals with metabolic disorders associated with oxidative stress has been studied. In experimental models of laboratory animals (male rabbits weighing 3,5–4,0 kg, n=40) with purulent septic diseases it has been demonstrated that the use of nutritive correction (replacement of 100 g of the cereal mixture through day on a mixture of cabbage 50 g, carrots 50 g, beet 25 g, apple 25 g, kiwi 10 g and garnet 10 g per 1 rabbit) is not inferior to its efficiency of glutathione use (2 g per day). The use of these antioxidants in laboratory animals significantly reduced the phenomenon of oxidative stress on the 5th day: blood antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 14,9 and 26,6%, and the area of the flash of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence of blood plasma reduced by 44,2 and 48,6% in the experimental groups receiving respectively nutritive correction and glutathione. The low-molecula level of blood antioxidant capacity was restored and the balance of the activity of superoxide dismutase (decrease) and catalase (increase) was achieved on the 10th day of the experiment. These figures significantly (p<0,05) differed from than in the group of animals receiving no antioxidant correction. The latter studied parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant system reached values comparable with those in intact animals (n=10) only on the 30th day, confirming the advisability of appointing a complex antioxidant therapy.