1 . 2014

Nutrimetabolomics – the new stage of biochemistry of nutrition. The role of nutrilipidomic analysis


In this review, in the light of current trends in the development of nutritional science and nutritional biochemistry the key directions associated with complex comprehensive study of metabolic processes in the body are discussed. We highlight the development of lipidomic researches and formation of nutrilipidomic analysis. We review the role of different lipids, including ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs, in mechanism of protein expression, the nature of lipid-protein interactions, and the signaling function of lipids. Since PUFAs influence the increase of peroxide oxidation of lipids, this review summarizes current methodology used to estimate the oxidative stress.

Diet treatment

Actual aspects of state control of dietary, clinical and prophylactic nutrition in health care organizations


A review is aimed to help professionals, who provide state sanitary control of dietary (clinical and prophylactic) nutrition in health care organizations.

Taking into account the new modern legislative framework and the scientific and practical publications, the basic requirements for standardization, harmonization and individualization (personalization) of nutritional therapy and monitoring of their implementation in health care organizations by state sanitary authorities has been set out. The attention is focused on the optimization of clinical nutrition, as well as the methods of assessment of balance and nutritive value of the standard diets, their proper correction with dry protein composite blends and other specialized products of dietary clinical and prophylactic nutrition, including foods fortified with dietary and biologically active substances and food supplements (nutraceuticals). The paper describes ways to improve the organization of state sanitary and dietary nutritional care in health care organizations, outlines priority issues to be addressed to improve the nutritional care.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

The effect of muscle load on the post-prandial content of blood serum hydrolytic enzymes in men with different levels and specificity of daily physical activity


The article presents data on the effect of the combined action of food and muscular load on the level of hydrolytic enzymes in blood serum of healthy young people 18–22 years old, with various levels of adaptation to the effects of physical activity. The first group (n=8) of the examined persons were high-qualified athletes developing their speed and power qualities in anaerobic energetic regime (Greco-Roman wrestling, sambo, judo). The second group (n=8) were athletes developing endurance in aerobic energetic regime (skiers, track and field athletes – stayers, biathletes).

The control group (n=8) consists of non-athletes. The content of hydrolytic enzymes: pepsinogen-1, pepsinоgen-2, the activity of pancreatic α-amylase, lipase were defined by ELISA. The content and activity of ferments were defined in blood serum, taken in the morning fasting and post-prandial period in dynamics after 15, 45, 75 and 105 min after administration of the test breakfast (100 g of ground boiled beef and 200 ml of unsweetened tea) in a state of relative physiological rest and after the veloergometric exercise muscular load (at the level of 60–70% of maximal oxygen consumption) during an hour (in 7–14 days). Multidirectional changes of concentration of investigated enzymes in the postprandial period among examined were defined in the conditions of relative physiological rest and under the action of the muscular tension. For groups of athletes higher α-amylase and lipase blood activity were characteristic both in a state of physiological rest and under the action of muscular load. It was also determined that after the muscular tension there was an increase in activity of α-amylase at 75 min and lipases at 15 min relative to background indicators at non-athletes. For the athletes from the second group the increase (р<0,01) relative to background data of activity as α-amylase as lipase on an empty stomach was noted. However postprandial (15–45 min) α-amylase (p<0,05) and lipase (p<0,001) activity was significantly decreased. At relatively high rates of fasting α-amylase activity there was a decrease of its level in the postprandial period, whereas at low rates of enzyme activity on an empty stomach its increase can be occurred in the postprandial period. Lipase activity changed in groups of athletes unidirectionally, it decreased (р<0,01) in athletes of the first group at 45 min. and in athletes from the second group at 15–105 min (р<0,001). For athletes of the first group, also as well for non-athletes, significantly lower blood lipase activity was noted at rest and in the conditions of muscular tension. After a physical load lipase activity in athletes from the second group was decreased throughout the postprandial period. Blood serum concentration of pepsinogen-1 and pepsinogen-2 were also significantly higher in the groups of athletes, but only in fasting conditions. After receiving the breakfast the content of these proenzymes were significantly lower in athletes comparable to the control group. Pepsinogen-2 concentration had a strong tendency to significant decrease after muscular exercise in all athletes throughout the postprandial period (at 15 and 105 min). For the athletes from the first group a decrease of pepsinogen-2 concentration to the values accepted as a norm (4–22 μg/l) was tended. The obtained data suggest that the revealed changes are associated with a sport orientation and a level of daily physical activity.

The effect of diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 and ω-6 families on activity of aminotransferases and γ-glutamyltransferase in rat blood serum

The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90–110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only ω-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA 7:1. Along with this, the AST:ALT ratio (de Ritis ratio) was lower (p<0,05) as compared with the control group of rat, amounting respectively 0,92±0,08 and 0,79±0,12 vs 1,26±0,10. The use of high doses of ω-3 fatty acids (600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA per kg of animal weight per day coming through fish oil) did not affect the activity of ALT and GGT, but increased AST serum activity (0,47±0,04 micromoles/min per mg protein) and the de Ritis ratio (2,53±0,23). The diet deprived with fat increased enzyme activity of ALT, AST and GGT in rat blood serum.

Effects of dietary fibers on hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with alimentary polyhypovitaminosis


The effect of dietary fibers (DF) of wheat bran on hepatocyte apoptosis in rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 48 male Wistar rats (initial body mass – 58,1±0,5 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups and fed with semi-synthetic diet, containing 100% or 20% of vitamin mixture (Vit) with or without addition of DF in the dose corresponding to the upper allowable level of its consumption (5% of diet mass) for 4 weeks. The animals of the 1 group received 100% of vitamin mixture (100% Vit); 2 group – 100% Vit + DF; 3 group – 20% of vitamin mixture with full exclusion of vitamins Е, В 1 and В 2 (20% Vit); 4 group – 20% of vitamin mixture and DF (20% Vit + DF). The next 5 days rats from vitamin-deficient groups were fed with diets supplemented with 80% of vitamins from their content in control group: (5 group – 20% Vit + 80% Vit; 6 group – 20% Vit + DF + 80% Vit). The suspension of hepatocytes was received by Becton Dickinson Medimachine System (USA). Hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed by the method of flow cytometry using Beckman Coulter FC 500 (USA) cytometer by stained cells with Annexin V-FITC/ 7-AminoActinomycin D Kit (Beckman Coulter, USA). In rats fed complete semi-synthetic diet supplemented with DF (100% Vit + DF) the hepatocyte apoptosis was higher by 22% (p<0,10) than that in rats of control group (4,99±1,82%). In rats fed diets with low vitamin content (groups: 20% Vit and 20% Vit + DF) the hepatocyte apoptosis was significantly higher (p<0,05) than that in the control group and reached 7,03±1,74 and 7,26±1,13% accordingly. Normalization of vitamin content in the diets of rats from deficient groups during 5 days had no effect on the severity of apoptosis regardless from presence (8,02±2,18%) or absence of the DF (8,04±1,66%). Adding DF in dose corresponding to the upper allowable level of consumption, on the background of adequate vitamin content in the diet is accompanied by a tendency to develop hepatocyte apoptosis, which may be the result of a direct action of short chain fatty acids generated from the DF and the deterioration of vitamin sufficiency.

Influence of nutritional patterns on the severity of acne in young adults


Currently, one of discussed questions of acne etiopathogenesis is alimentary factors, in particular, national dietary habits at different regions and the role of diet.

The purpose of this research: from the standpoint of evidence-based medicine to reveal the influence of dietary intake (energy value of the diet, macroand micronutrients content) on the actual severity of acne in young people.

We observed 180 respondents aged 15 to 25 years. The main group included 90 patients with moderate to severe acne, who were treated at the Center for Dermatology and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in Astana, including 38 girls and 52 boys, mean age 20,5±4,3 years. The control group consisted of 90 apparently healthy subjects (36 girls and 54 boys, mean age 19,8±4,2 years) without even a single manifestation of non-inflammatory or inflammatory acne elements. Studying the actual food consumption was carried out by a 24-hour (daily) food recall using specially designed questionnaires and albums. Results: regular meals with excess energy value significantly contributes to the progression of disease severity in young people with acne [the power of influence in young men was 0,43 (43%), girls – 0,42 (42%)], the excess of the normal daily requirements for carbohydrates also significantly affect the severity of acne [the power of influence in young men –

0,23 (23%), in girls – 0,35 (35%)], lack of vitamin A (retinol) and its provitamin (carotene) significantly affect the severity of acne (the power of influence in young men – 0,44 (44%) and 0,42 (42%), respectively, in girls – 0,46 (46%) and 0,31 (31%), respectively); in young men with severe acne vitamin D deficiency with a force of 0,3 (30%) significantly potentiates the inflammatory process; lack of zinc in the diet significantly affects the severity of the pathological process in severe forms of acne, the power of influence of this micronutrient in young men – 0,44 (44%), women – 0,34 (34%).

The prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in children in Tomsk Region


Food allergy to peanuts and nuts is an actual problem of practical health care, associated with significant prevalence of this disease, severe clinical symptoms and difficulty of diet organization. Purpose of the study – to study the prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in Russian children, the investigation of clinical characteristics of this disease, and the mechanisms of sensitization to allergen components. The cross-sectional study was performed in the framework of the EuroPrevall (№ FP6-2006-TTC-TU-5 Proposal 045 879). The first stage was performed in random samples of primary schoolchildren aged 7–10 years (n=13 010) from the Tomsk Region, Russia using a standardized questionnaire. The case-control sample was recruited for the second stage (n=1288). Thus who reported adverse reactions to food in the screening stage were considered as cases (n=652), children without reported reactions were controls (n=636). The case-control stage included the completion of a clinical questionnaire, skin-prick test (ALK-Abellу, Spain), serum specific IgE measurement and component-resolved diagnostic: IgE measurement of allergen components of peanut (Ara h1, Ara h26, Ara h34, Ara h8), hazelnut (Cor a1, Cor a8, Cor a11) and birch allergen Bet v1 (ImmunoCAP, Phadia, Sweden). The prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in children aged 7–10 years in the Tomsk region is 0,08 and 0,09%, respectively. The manifestation of the food allergy to nuts occurs in the preschool years, main reactions associated with allergy to nuts were oral allergy syndrome (75–80%), gastrointestinal disorders (60–80%) and itching skin rash (20–50%). Sensitization to birch is significantly correlated with the level of specific IgE to hazelnut (r=0,53, p<0,05) and peanut (r=0,56, p<0,05). Sensitization to heat-labile proteins peanut Ara h8 (12,3%) and hazelnut Cor a1 (8,8%) (homologues of Bet v1) dominates in the sample of children with food sensitization, that determines the cross-reactivity mechanism in the formation of food sensitization in the studied sample. The prevalence of allergies to peanut and hazelnut in Russia is much lower than in Europe and North America. Sensitization to these foods develops by the mechanism of cross-reactivity with birch pollen allergen. This type of sensitization determines mild clinical symptoms of allergy to hazelnut and peanut.

Can cross-allergic reactions to food antigens be the cause of recurrent pancreatitis in children with food allergies?


Drug and food allergy in 80% of cases are the cause of duodenal inflammation disrupting the function of the pancreatic ducts. However, in some cases, elimination diet in patients with food allergy does not provide a sufficient effect. The article shows the effect of cross-allergic reactions on recurrent pancreatitis in 28 children with food allergy (mean age 11,7±2,9 years). As an additional diagnostic criterion the coefficient of degranulation of mast cell in the intestinal mucosa (the ratio of degranulated forms to granulated) was determined, through which the effect of crossallergic reactions (between food antigens and drugs of animal origin) on the duration and frequency of exacerbations of chronic pancreatitis in children with food sensitization has been shown. The exception of enzyme preparations for children with sensitization to pork and exception of eubiotics prepared using sucrose-gelatin-milk medium for children with sensitization to cow’s milk and beef led to feel better in a shorter time (2–3 days) and to reduce the frequency of relapses. Catamnesis observation for 3 years showed that the incidence of recurrent exacerbations of the disease in 11 children with excepted cross-allergic reactions in the first year of follow-up was 9,1%, in the second year – 9,1% and in the third year – 0%, while in control group (17 children) the frequency of exacerbations was respectively 23,5; 35,3; 35,3%. In patients of the main group there was a slight overall increase of mast cells in the intestinal mucosa from 211,7 to 230,2 mm 2 (p>0,05) with decreasing of degranulated forms from 163,6 to 138,71 mm 2 (p>0,05) and significant increase of granulated forms from 47,41 to 91,51 mm 2 (p<0,05), resulting in a significant decrease in mast cells degranulation coefficient from 3,2±0,62/mm 2 to 1,24±0,26/mm 2 (p<0,0001). Thus, duodenal etiology of recurrent pancreatitis caused by exposure to food antigens or cross-allergic reactions can be diagnosed with an additional diagnostic criterion – the coefficient of mast cell degranulation, whose exponents greater than 1,5 indicate evidence of antigenic exposure to the mucosa of the duodenum and allergic inflammation.

Сравнительный анализ эффективности действия эргогенных компонентов энергетических напитков (кофеина и экстракта горького апельсина) в сочетании с алкоголем

Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0,6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4,28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0,43 mg of synephrine per kg body weight. Animals in the control group received the same volume (7,1 ml/kg) 7,2% aqueous solution of ethanol. Group of animals consumed caffeine in mixture with alcohol and the control group exhibited a significant weight gain, while the body weight of animals treated with the extract of bitter orange didn’t significantly change. Using the methodology of the open field the effects of caffeine and bitter orange extract in combination with alcohol on the ratio of the active components of the orienting-exploratory behavior and passive-defensive behavior have been determined. Administration of mixture with caffeine increased locomotory activity by 164%, administration of bitter orange extract didn’t affect this performance. Introduction of caffeine containing mixture significantly reduced the level of situational anxiety, which was manifested in the reduction of time spent by the animal in the center of the arena. The effects of ergogenic components on the performance of static and dynamic muscle endurance have been investigated. Single administration of the mixture containing caffeine, after 30 min caused a significant increase in performance and, consequently, endurance of glycolytic muscle fibers measured using the «inverted grid» test. Animals from this group produced 186% more work compared with control animals. Acute administration of bitter orange extract did not cause significant changes in static endurance. At the same time after 7 days of its daily administration a slight increase in dynamic endurance (test «treadmill») has been determined, which was expressed in some increase in the amount of work done by animals fed bitter orange extract compared with the control group of animals. Death of 1 animal in the group consumed bitter orange exract mixture with alcochol indicates potential risks of synephrine consumation together with alcohol.
Hygiene of nutrition

Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities


Amaranth flour – a product of amaranth seeds processing – is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched.

It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10,8–24,3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22,65 and 46,51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107,54%, and in semolina protein only 40,95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2,79–12,85 and 4,76–15,85% respectively, while fiber content was 15,5–30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and α-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.
Research methods

Determination of major metal cations in juices and nectars by capillary zone electrophoresis

The method of determination of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium cations by capillary zone electrophoresis (using lithium cations as the internal standard) in the juices and nectars was advised. Optimal conditions for electrophoretic separation: pH value of the working buffer (pH 3,6), the concentration of imidazole (contrast agent 15–20 mmol/dm 3 ), the concentration of 18-crown-6 ether (2 mmol/dm 3 ). The method was tested on 15 samples of juices and nectars. The results of determination of potassium and magnesium cations were compared with results obtained by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The equation of the linear regression and R-squared value for determinations of magnesium cations were defined as: y=0,999x+3,29; R=0,952; for determination of potassium cations: y=0,959x+51,94; R=0,997; indicating good the correlation between the data obtained by these methods.
History of medicine

Contribution of military doctor Roman S. Chetyrkin in the formation and development of medicine in Russia


The article deals with an extensive and diverse activities of prominent military doctor Roman Sergeyevich Chetyrkin, who contributed greatly to the development of hygiene and epidemiology in Russia. He had a lot of merit as a talented organizer of military and civilian health care. Special attention is paid to the Chetyrkin’s contribution to the development of military medical expertise because of his works in this direction are fundamental for this science.


Михаил Федорович Нестерин (к 85-летию со дня рождения)


SCImago Journal & Country Rank
Scopus CiteScore
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Medicine today

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