5 . 2014
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Effects of rutin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver of rats fed diets with different level of fat


The study has been carried out on 6 groups of male Wistar rats, which received semi-synthetic diets within 28 days. Rats of 1st and 4th group received fat-free diet, 2nd and 5th – diet containing standard amount of fat (10% by weight, 26% by caloric content; lard/sunflower oil – 1/1); 3rd and 6th group – a highfat diet (30% by weight, 56% by caloric content). During the last 14 days of the experiment rats received rutin in the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. AOA, MDA level and the activity of paraoxonase 1 have been evaluated in blood serum. In rat liver along with the parameters of the antioxidant status (MDA level, activity of paraoxonase 1, quinone reductase, heme oxygenase-1) the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A1, CYP2B1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathione transferase) and the activity of lysosomal enzymes (arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase) have been investigated. Elevation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and XME in liver with the increase of diet fat content has been noted. Rutin administration had no effect on parameters of antioxidant status and decreased unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes that did not depend on fat content in the diet. Rutin receiving increased the activity of all studied XME in rats fed standard diet, but practically did not effect on their activity in rats fed by fat-free and high-fat diets. Thus, rutin in pharmacological dose has no effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes that doesn’t depend on the level of fat in the diet, while the decrease or increase of diet fat content modulates (weakens) the influence of rutin on the XME activity.

Isomeric specific analysis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in blood samples from obese patients with non-alcoholic and alcoholic steatohepatitis


The aim of the study was to perform isomeric analysis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) in blood samples from obese patients with non-alcoholic (NASH) and alcoholic (ASH) steatohepatitis. Sixty nine obese patients with liver steatosis according to abdominal US data and chronic ALT elevation were assign into two groups according to the evaluation of alcohol consumption by GAGE and AUDIT questionnaires: NASH – 39 patients and ASH – 30 patients. The identification and quantification of 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), 15-HETE and also non-enzymatic oxidation product 11-HETE in blood plasma were carried out by HPLC-MS-TOF with using 2-hydroxyoctanoic acid as internal standard. The position of hydroxyl group in HETE was elucidated by HPLC-MS/MS. The MS/MS transitions were for 15-HETE m/z 319 → m/z 219; for 11-HETE m/z 319 → m/z 167; for 5-HETE m/z 319 → m/z 115. Patients’ body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance, resting energy expenditures (REE) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and nutrition pattern was examined by food frequency questionnaire. Mean age, BMI and ALT serum level were similar in patients from ASH and NASH groups. Blood plasma 8+12-HETE concentration was also similar in both groups of patients, but concentration of 15-HETE (21,6Ѓ}20,2 vs 11,9Ѓ}13,7 μg/ml, р=0,02) and 11-HETE (20,8Ѓ}21,3 vs 11,2Ѓ}12,9 μg/ml, р=0,03) was significantly higher in NASH patients. ASH patients demonstrated higher lean body mass (68,1Ѓ}10,6 vs 57,9Ѓ}9,8 kg, p<0,001) and muscle mass (39,3Ѓ}6,1 vs 33,2Ѓ}6,8 kg, p<0,04) and higher rate of protein oxidation (98,5Ѓ}31 vs 76,2Ѓ}21,1 g/day, р=0,02) recalculated from REE. There were no differences found in blood lipids content as well as in consumption of total dietary fat, however, there was a trend to difference in saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio between groups (2,3Ѓ}0,2 in NASH and 1,4Ѓ}0,3 in ASH patients). In conclusion, the rate of production of eicosatetraenoic acid metabolites by lipoxygenase pathway is different in NASH and ASH overweight patients.

It means that possibly different mechanisms are responsible for formation of potentially toxic fatty acids metabolites in these two types of patients. It seems likely that differences in fatty acids consumption pattern are related to this metabolic pathway.

Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats


The influence of vitamin supply of growing male Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5Ѓ}0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet, providing adequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture.

On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level – by 5 fold, urinary excretion of riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

Effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on stomach regenerative processes in rats


The effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on regenerative processes of rat stomach upon simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin was studied. Experimental research was carried out on male Wistar rats with initial body weight of 230Ѓ}20 g. The duration of the experiment was 22 days. The rats were divided into 4 equal groups (n=11). The first (control) group consisted of the intact animals; animals from experimental groups 2–4 were intragastrically administered acetylsalicylic acid from the 1st to the 7th day for simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin (300 mg/100 g body weight). From day 8 to day 22, the animals were intragastrically administered the tested samples in the quantity of 2 ml per animal according to the scheme:

the 2nd group – distilled water, the 3rd group – native abomasum extract; the 4 th group – thermally treated abomasum extract. Abomasum extract was obtained by extraction with 0,87% aqueous sodium chloride crushed abomasum and represented a liquid of cream color with protein mass content of 1,3 g/100 g of the product with high content of glutamic acid (15,5 g/100 g protein) and B-group vitamins. Electrophoretic analysis of the extract revealed several high molecular weight fractions in the range of 72 to 55 kDa. The bands with molecular masses 52, 43, 40, 37, 34, 26, 17 kDa were most pronounced; the intensive bands in the area 12 kDa and in the range lower than 10 kDa were revealed. The results of the conducted study show that the abomasum extracts both in the native and thermally treated form exert therapeutic action on animal with stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin, have good antiulcer and gastroprotective activities upon stomach mucosa exposure to chemical damaging agents. The analysis of the hematological indices of the animals from the 3rd and 4th groups, which received the test samples after simulation, revealed the normalization of leukocyte, lymphocyte, granulocyte and monocyte content.

This suggests the recovery of the animals after the disease. In the blood serum of these animals concentration of total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose and the activity of gamma-glutamine transferase, ASAT and alkaline phosphatase decreased compared with those in animals with the model of stomach mucosal injury; while the total protein content, including the albumin fraction increased. The examination of the internal organs of the animals from the 3rd and 4th groups showed that the mucosal and submucosal membrane of the stomach were plicate, the signs of edema were absent, the hyperemia, any changes in mucosa, surface and glandular epithelium were not observed.

Hygiene of nutrition

Study of microbial contamination of processed fresh vegetables and lettuce


Investigations of microbial contamination and species composition of the Enterobacteriaceae family in fresh vegetables and lettuce has been conducted. The objects of study were new types of fresh ready-to-eat vegetable foods – salads, sliced vegetables and mixtures thereof, sampled at the main stages of production, including washing, antimicrobial treatment with sodium hypochlorite, and packaging in the film under vacuum. Quantitative analysis of Enterobacteriaceae levels in fresh and packaged vegetables and salads showed that their part in the total amount of microbial contaminants is large enough. Average Enterobacteriaceae content ranged from 2,14 to 3,34 lg cfu/g, reaching in some samples values 4,38–4,74 lg, comparable with the levels of total bacteria. Considerable species diversity of microflora contaminating ready-toeat vegetable products has been found. Bacteria of the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Kluyvera, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Rahnella, Acinetobacter were found in the salads and sliced vegetables. In the tested samples most frequently detected Enterobacter spp. – 37% of identified strains and Pantoea spp – 25% of strains. The data on the composition and levels of microbial contaminants in vegetable and salad products highlight not only the need to monitor coliform bacteria – traditional indicators of faecal contamination of raw materials, but also the need to introduce criteria for the amount of Enterobacteriaceae.

Determination of deuterium concentration in foods and influence of water with modified isotopic composition on oxidation parameters and heavy hydrogen isotopes content in experimental animals


The article presents the results of the study of the deuterium (D) content in food products, as well as the influence of deuterium depleted water (DDW) on the concentration of heavy hydrogen isotopes in the blood and lyophilized tissues of rats. The most significant difference in the content of D was found between potato and pork fat, which indexes the standard delta notation (δ) D in promille, related to the international standard SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean of Water) amounted to -83,2‰ and -250,7‰, respectively (p<0,05). Among the investigated samples of water deuterium concentration ranged from -75,5‰ (Narzan) to +72,1‰ (Kubai), that indicates the ability of some food products to increase the concentration of heavy hydrogen atoms in the body. The data obtained in the experimental modeling of the diet of male Wistar rats in the age of 5–6 mo (weight 235 Ѓ} 16 g) using DDW (δD = -743,2 ‰) instead of drinking water (δD = -37,0 ‰) with identical mineral composition showed that after 2 weeks significant (p <0,05) formation of isotopic (deuterium-protium, D/H) gradient in the body is possible. Changing the direction of isotopic D/H gradient in laboratory animals in comparison with its physiological indicators (72–127‰, ≪plasma>>tissue≫) is due to different rates of isotopic exchange reactions in plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart), which can be explained by entering into the composition of a modified diet of organic substrates with more than DDW concentration D, which are involved in the construction of cellular structures and eventually lead to a redistribution of D and change direction of D/H gradient ≪plasma<<tissue≫ from 87,29‰ (plasma–kidney) to 188,72‰ (plasma–heart), which can be explained by a change in the adaptation of the body. This use of nutrients with modified isotopic composition, aimed at reducing the level of heavy non-radioactive atoms will allow the targeted nutritional correction of prooxidant-antioxidant status of the population in areas with adverse environmental conditions, stimulating by created isotopic D/H gradient cytoprotective mechanisms influencing the various components of nonspecific protection, including free radical oxidation processes. And then again, periodic assessment of the isotopic composition of nutrients will monitor the quality of food consumed by the population, and if necessary, to the definition of the geographical location of their origin.

Micronutrients in human nutrition

Contribution of fish consumption to human iodine and selenium status in Moscow and Moscow Region


Fish is known to be a significant source of iodine and selenium for human beings. The aim of the present work was evaluation of iodine and selenium consumption levels with fish by residents of Moscow Region and Moscow. 400 Residents of Moscow and Moscow Region (100 children of 2–6 years age, 100 adults of 20–35 years age, 100 students of 18–22 years age and 100 elderly persons of 50–75 years age were inspected using values of ioduria and Se status determination. I concentration was determined by voltamperometric method, Se – via semiquantitative peroxide test. The values of ioduria for the inhabitants corresponded to moderate (Moscow Region, ioduria median 52,5 μg/l ) and light (Moscow, ioduria mediane 67 μg/l ) I deficiency with marginal Se deficiency in both cases (79–90% of persons had a negative peroxide test parameters, corresponding to serum Se level >90 μg/l). Though main fish species used by the population (humpback, trout, steelhead) contain relatively high levels of Se (505Ѓ}46, 376Ѓ}32, 413Ѓ}22 μg/kg) and I (187Ѓ}66, 290Ѓ}102, 330Ѓ}116 μg/kg), they are not able to maintain high I and Se status of the inhabitants due to low consumption level. I consumption with fish, being used once per week, reached 21 μg, Se – 35 μg per week. Up to 40% of students and 28% of elderly do not eat fish at all. Children of 2–6 years old residing in Moscow Region compose a special group of ecological risk of I deficiency possessing significant I deficiency 3 times more frequently than children from Moscow.

Complex of zinc with enzymatic hydrolysate of pigspleen protein – in vivo investigation


Experimental sample of complex zinc with enzymatic hydrolysate of pigspleen protein (Zn-EHPS) was produced in laboratory with ultra- and nanofiltration technologies; its composition was analyzed; male rats Wister (initial body weight 132Ѓ}2,4 g) were under observation in vivo: rats were given zinc-deficient ration (ZDR) ≪Zinc Deficient Diet, Egg White Base≫, containing not more than 1,3 mg zinc/kg, and water ad libitum during 18 days. Animals were divided into 3 groups (10 in each): group 1 was given ZDR and distilled water; group 2 – ZDR and water zinc sulphate solution (ZnSO4) with zinc concentration of 16,3 mcg/ml; group 3 – ZDR and water Zn-EHPS solution with zinc concentration of 16,3 mcg/ml. All rats were daily observed with registration of water consumption. Unconditioned reflex (photophobia) or crossing time from light to darkness on special system before the beginning of experiment was tested out.

An increase of body weight (ΔW) during the experiment, unconditioned reflex stability and training to conditioned passive avoidance reflex (CPAR) after paw painful electric stimulation were studied. On 18 day in 16 hours after paw painful electric stimulation alkaline phosphatase activity (AP) and corticosterone concentration in rat blood serum were examined. Insignificant changes in distribution of peptide fractions according its molecular mass and practical complete remove of free metal ions from final product were observed when Zn-EHPS-technology were used. During experiment in all groups correspondently ΔW was 23, 87 and 82% (p<0,05); AP activity – 1,70Ѓ}0,06; 3,10Ѓ}0,25; 4,19Ѓ} 0,26 mcmol/l/s (p<0,01); corticosterone concentration – 20,7Ѓ}7,2; 21,5Ѓ}6,3; 22,1Ѓ}6,5 ng/ml (p>0,1) were observed. Significant (p<0,05) worse change of unconditioned reflex (photophobia) in group 1 (ZDR) in comparison with group 2 and group 3 (latent period – LP, s: 50,9Ѓ}12,0; 18,2Ѓ}16,0; 16,0Ѓ}4,2) as well as to initial test (LP, s – 16,8Ѓ}8,0) was found on the 14th day of the experiment.

According to LP-test CPAR in all groups in 24 and in 96 hours after paw painful electric stimulation was found to be maintained. Data obtained let to suggest high bioavailability of new zinc organic form – Zn-EHPS and its usage possibility in fortification of special foods.

Diet treatment

Effeciency of usage of natural low caloric protein-vegetable product by patients with excess body weight and hypertension


The efficiency of the usage of natural low caloric concentrated protein-vegetable food product (LCCF) by 23 persons with excess body weight at the age of 30–44 years (the 1st group) and 30 hypertensive patients at remission stage and overweight at age 45–59 years old (the 2nd group) has been assessed.

According to energy expenditure, all examined male persons were classified to II group of physical activity: Physical Activity Coefficient (PAC) was 1,35Ѓ}0,14 and 1,34Ѓ}0,22 respectively. As for dietary intake, authors revealed an excess of protein (up to 20,1%), fat (up to 17,2%) and daily caloric content over daily energy expenditure that led to an increase of body weight along with metabolic and liver function disorders. Initially, body mass index (BMI) was 29,9Ѓ}0,6 kg/m2

in the 1st group and 36,2Ѓ}0,4 kg/m2 in the 2nd group. LCCFP was administrated to persons in studied groups and consisted of fat-free curd, egg white, rye bran, dried apricots, laminaria, leaves of green tea and cowberry. The product was made by cryogenic technology. LCCFP (35 g) was administrated two times per day instead of breakfast and supper during 15 days. Protein content in 1 portion of LCCFP was 5.2 g, fats – 3.8 g, carbohydrates – 16.8 g; energy value – 122 kcal.

The decrease of daily caloric content was 1225,5 kilocalories (kcal) in the 1st group and 1071,3 kcal in the 2nd group during period of LCCFP administration; the energy value of the diet amounted to an average of 1420 and 1560 kcal per day.

During the study, authors found serum protein indices were constant, but revealed the decrease of the level of glucose (by 15,3–18%), cholesterol (18,8–19%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (13,9–15,8%), triglycerides (20–26,3%) and alanine aminotransferase (39,7–41,4%) and asparagine aminotransferase (40,6–40,7%) activity. This provided evidence of positive influence of the natural protein-vegetable LCCFP on fat and carbohydrate metabolisms as well as liver function. Also, the decrease of atherogenicity index (1,45–1,5 units) gave evidence of effectiveness of used method. The decrease of systolic arterial pressure (by 12,9%) and diastolic arterial pressure (by 20,7%) in patients with hypertension at remission stage and body weight provided evidence of positive influence of caloric content decrease due to LCCFP administration on function of cardiovascular system in this category of examined persons.

An analysis of the efficacy of low-calorie and isocaloric diets in obese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis


Diet modification is widely used for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Caloric restriction was shown to be effective in normalizing blood lipid profile, increasing insulin sensitivity and subsequent normalization of aminotrasferases blood level. The aim of the study was to compare low-calorie diet (LCD) with isocaloric diet (ICD) in patients with NASH. 174 NASH patients [86 females (39,43Ѓ}1,53 years old) and 88 males (41,7Ѓ}2,0), BMI 36,8Ѓ}0,8 kg/m2] were randomly assigned (as 1:2) for LCD (1600–1700 kcal/day) or ICD (2500–2700 kcal/day) calculated according to patients’ sex, age, resting energy expenditures and daily physical activity. Caloric restriction was achieved by decreasing consumption of carbohydrates and fat in LCD, whereas for ICD the caloric consumption was established according to the recommended daily values for proteins, fat and carbohydrates for ideal BMI for every patient. Blood chemistry and body composition were assessed at baseline and after 1 mo of prescribed diets. Compliance for the diet was also evaluated using previously validated questionnaire. After 1 mo of dietetic interventions total body mass and lean mass significantly decreased in both groups, but in LCD group it was significantly more prominent decrease in compare to ICD group (9,3Ѓ}1,8 vs 6,2Ѓ}1,7 kg and 6,6Ѓ}0,4 vs 1,4Ѓ}0,6 kg, p<0,05), whereas fat mass decreased better in ICD group (4,8Ѓ}0,7 vs 2,7Ѓ}0,8 kg, p<0,05). Mean ALT level was decreased in ICD group (77,5Ѓ}41,7 vs 98,8Ѓ}45,7, p<0,01), but not in LCD group (81,2Ѓ}50,6 vs 77,2Ѓ}31,8, p=NS) whereas blood cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein were significantly decreased in both groups. Moreover, during the diet intervention in 72% of patients from LCD group ALT increased.

Compliance index was much higher in ICD group, than in LCD group (85% vs 54%). Thus, one month of ICD leads to decrease in ALT activity in majority of NASH patients, higher loss of fat mass, lower loss of lean mass and associated with better compliance in compare to LCD.

Clinical efficacy instant goat milk in the complex therapy and prevention of osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis


Osteoporosis (OP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to a secondary immunemediated metabolic osteopathy characterized by periarticular and systemic decreased bone mass, impaired bone strength and increased risk of fractures. According to some studies, adding milk in the diet helps to increase bone mineral density and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and maintain normal levels of vitamin D. To study the state of mineral and bone metabolism in RA patients with osteopenic syndrome and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and prevention of OP by adding dry goat milk ≪Amalteya≫ in the diet. The study included 42 patients with a documented diagnosis of RA (ACR, 1987) – 23 men (mean age 59 years) and 19 postmenopausal women (mean age 62 years) with the presence of osteoporosis and osteopenia according to the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 21 (50%) RA patients (main group) received standard antiosteoporotichesky (alendronate 70 mg/week + calcium 1000 mg/day + Vitamin D3 800 IU/day) therapy and milk powder AmalteyaR (400 ml/day). The control group (21 patients with RA) received only standard antiosteoporotic therapy. Follow-up lasted for 6 months. The concentration of total calcium in the blood of RA patients was on average 2.33 mmol/l, ionized Ca – 1,18 mmol/l and inorganic P – 1,09 mmol/l, which corresponds to normal values. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 17,5% of patients, and failure – in 32,5% of patients with RA. After 6 months of the treatment it was found that b-CrossLaps levels tend to be reducing in both of the groups and with reduction of bone formation marker osteocalcin in the group not receiving goat milk. Also, due to the background of ongoing combinative therapy it was clear that concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D in the blood serum are increasing (by 18,5-28,2% at the main group and by 8,0-17,9% at the control group), however, inter-group differences was below the level of the reliable importance. It was strongly marked in the group who received goat’s milk ≪AmalteyaR≫.Reduced levels of vitamin D in the blood is typical for 50% of RA patients with osteopenic syndrome with normal values of calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Combination therapy and prevention of osteoporosis in patients with RA with an additional inclusion in the diet of the daily administration of 400 ml of goat’s milk ≪AmaltheaR≫ has a positive impact on bone metabolism.

Biologically active substances in foods

Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)


10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150–400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate–Smith method, varied from 20–25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80–430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg /100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0–80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1–75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130–400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6–94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (<10 mg/100 g) were found. The malic acid was predominant among organic acids, the total content of which varied from 0,4 to 2,8%. Relatively high amount of ascorbic acid (35–60 mg/100 g) was found. The carbohydrates profile of cornelian cherries was represented by fructose (2,2–3,8%) and glucose (2,5–7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5–932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits.

History of medicine

Catering services bases in the Russian army under military regulation of Peter the Great


At Peter I the regular army was organized and the system of target state deliveries to troops of the food is created. Provisioning and fodder was normalized as portion and ration. Portion was contained the products for people food, and ration – fodder for horses food who were used by the serviceman. Portion and ration unit was identical to all categories of the military personnel. Difference in food level consisted in that, how many portions and rations serviceman received. Up to the end of existence of Russian army in 1918 in each rota there were contractor and the cook who were engaged in foodstuff and cooking under sergeant-major and one of rota officers supervision. According to the Charter it was necessary to carry with respect and attention to officers and soldiers, their needs, including in the field of supply and catering services and providing with the food. Despite the lack of scientific justification, soldiers’ nutrition was sufficient to provide fighting capacity of the Russian army.

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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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