6 . 2014

Fat component in the diet and providing with fat-soluble vitamins

Information about the content of polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) and vitamin E and D in fish, vegetable oils, trend data on consumption of the main fat products, the consumption of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids by patients with diseases which risk factor is the excessive consumption of fat and insufficient content of PUFA omega-3 in the diet. Nutrition of the Russian population is characterized by excessive consumption of fat, including saturated fatty acids. Despite increased consumption of PUFA at the present time the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet is not optimal. This is due to high consumption of vegetable oils (mainly sunflower oil), that are the major source of alpha-linolenic acid, only a small portion of which is converted in the body into DHA and EPA, and insufficient consumption of fish and seafood containing a high level of DHA and EPA. Taking into account the data that inadequate intake of PUFA omega-3 is a risk factor for many nutrition-related diseases, there is no doubt necessary to modify the fat component of the diet. But the problems arise how to select the source of PUFA and avoid possible unwanted effects. Enrichment of the diet with PUFA omega-3 by inclusion of fish oil and / or linseed oil in the diet may lead to a deterioration of sufficiency with vitamin E. The way out of this situation is to create a fat module containing several fats and tocopherol, that will prevent the peroxidation of fat components of the product and prevent the deterioration of sufficiency with vitamin E.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Stress-induced indicators of hydrolytic function of the stomach and the pancreas at persons with various type of independent (vegetative) nervous system

The purpose of research is to study the influence of emotional stress on the activity of digestive enzymes in blood serum of individuals with different initial tone of the autonomic nervous system. Students’ session acted as a model of emotional stress. Based on ritm-cardiografic testing according to the indicators of heart rate variability (HRV) 120 healthy young people (18–22 years old) were divided into 3 groups. Hardware-software complex «Varikard 2.51» has been applied to record the electrocardiography and heart rate variability analysis. Regulatory system tension has been selected as an indicator of autonomic balance index, that did not exceed 30 conventional units in student with vagotonia, ranged from 31 to 120 conventional units in normotoniсs and values from 121 conventional units characterized sympathicotonia. The interpretation of these parameters was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the European Cardiology and North-American Society for electrophysiology, as well as the guidelines of Russian authors. The level of serum hydrolytic enzymes: 1 pepsinogen (PG 1), 2 pepsinogen (PG 2), amylase, lipase has been determined, the ratio PG 1/PG 2 was calculated. Investigations were carried out on an empty stomach in the day of workshops and during the examination session (emotional stress). The obtained data were statistically processed by variance analysis using the Student’s t test. Individual variations were identified in hydrolytic activity of serum enzymes, depending on the original background level of the autonomic nervous system. It has been found that stress factors lead to opposite changes of digestive enzymes activity of blood serum, which were more pronounced in students with high baseline tone of sympatic nervous system. It has been determined that the amylolytic activity was increased in stress in all groups. A reduction in pepsinogen 2 level and lipolytic activity of blood serum has been showed in the group with simpathotony; while endocrine function of the gastric glands in the parasympatic and normotonic groups in terms of pepsinogen 2 increased.

Genetic rat models of type 2 diabetes for evaluation the effectiveness of minor biologically active food substances

The purposeful use of plant minor biologically active food substances (with demonstrated evident hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant action) in the composition of specialized dietary products can become the innovative approach for the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical testing of minor biologically active food substances of plant origin and their further use in the composition of specialized dietary products should be preceded by the stage of complex physiological and biochemical studies in vivo. It all turns on the question: to which extent the results obtained with the biomodel can be extrapolated on the human body. Hence, this review comparatively evaluates the rat models of type 2 diabetes. In this paper, we overview the most frequently used monogenic models of obesity with the damage of the leptin signaling pathway, when the animal loses control over saturation, hyperphagia and subsequent obesity appear. We describe polygenic models of obesity-related diabetes with fatty rats, which are more approximated to type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. The characteristic of the type 2 diabetes model without obesity is given in the article: the SDT (Spontaneously Diabetic Torii) rats are genetically predisposed to glucose intolerance. Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-fa/fa (SDT fatty) rat is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a younger age as compared with SDT rats. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rats are useful as a model for the development of new drugs and/or specialized dietary products to reduce body fat mass.
Diet treatment

Evaluating the effectiveness of dietary management of patients with varying degrees of obesity

The purpose of the research is to study the efficiency of a low-calorie diet in treatment of patients with various degree of expressiveness of obesity. 605 patients (188 men and 417 women) with a body mass index >25 kg/m 2 at age 18–79 years have been examined. All patients underwent a complex clinical and instrumental and laboratory examination on the «Nutritest IP-2» system, including studying of clinical status dynamics, anthopometrical indicators, composite structure of a body, parameters of a power exchange and the laboratory indicators characterizing a condition of lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. It has been revealed that low-calorie diet in combination with traditional curative measures («Nutrikor IP-2») in obese patients significantly improved clinical status, central hemodynamics (blood pressure and heart rate), anthropometric parameters and body composition, lipid profile and parameters of metabolic status. In particular, systolic arterial pressure decreased authentically by 18–19% (р<0,001), diastolic arterial pressure – was reliable for 16–17% (р<0,001), heart rate authentically decreased by 7–12% (р<0,001). Concentration of blood glucose authentically decreased at patients with obesity of I and II degrees – by 6% (р<0,01), at patients with obesity of the III degrees – for 8% (р<0,001). The reduction of fatty body weight in patients without obesity was 2,3%, in patients with I degree of obesity – 3,1% (р<0,001), in patients with II degree of obesity – 3,4% (р<0,001), and in patients with III degree of obesity – 4% (р<0,001). It has been shown that the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions reduced according to the severity of obesity, that requires changes in the approach to the treatment of these patients, the search for new methods of drug and dietary management of this pathology.

Priorities in the development of specialized food products with optimized composition for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

The medical and biological rationale for the use of food ingredients in the development of specialized food products with optimized composition for patients with type 2 diabetes is given in the review. It is shown that the key aspects of the development of specialized foods for patients with type 2 diabetes are meeting the physiological needs of the patient in nutrients and biologically active substances, providing favorable metabolic effects of functional ingredients included in the product, maintaining the traditional quality of the enriched product, adjustment of the product composition in order to mitigate the possible changes caused by the introduction of functional ingredients.

The role of the Consultative and Diagnostic Centre «Healthy Nutrition» in the diagnosis and nutritional prevention of non-communicable diseases

In a consultative and diagnostic center «Healthy Nutrition» of Institute of Nutrition the nutritional status of 3500 patients (mean age 48,4±0,3 years) living in the Moscow region, using a system Nutritest IP-3, including genomic analysis has been examined. In the analysis of dietary intake by an average review, increased energy intake due to excess intake of the total (44,2% energy) and saturated fat (13,6%) has been shown. 30,0% of patients were overweight and 34,1% were obese. Osteopenia was detected in 31,0% of men and 25,0% women, osteoporosis – 20,9% and 30,3%, respectively. Analysis of the results of biochemical studies revealed increased cholesterol in 68,7% of patients, LDL cholesterol – at 63,9%, triglycerides – at 22,5%, glucose – at 29,4%. The frequency of the occurrence of risk alleles of genes associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus was: 47,8% – for the polymorphism rs9939609 (FTO gene), 8,3% – for polymorphism rs4994 (gene ADRB3), 60,2% – for the polymorphism rs659366 (gene UCP2), 36,6% – for the rs5219 polymorphism in the gene of ATP-dependent potassium channel.
Hygiene of nutrition

Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrients intake

Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary for forming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to –1,0, as reduced from –1,0 to –2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients – significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients’ diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β -carotene, vitamins A, B1 , E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral density between women in our study are caused by genetic polymorphism, which leads to differences in the actual demand for nutrients, sufficient for prevention of bone decrease, in individuals.
New food products: technology, composition, effectiveness

Modification of carbohydrate composition of confectionery for diabetics type 2

Confectionery products are not staple foods, however, are an integral part of the daily diet of almost all age groups of population, including children and the elderly. Traditional confectionery are high-calorie foods that contain significant amounts of carbohydrates, the bulk of which is sucrose. One of the main requirements to the diet of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, is limiting of easily digestible carbohydrates in the diet. Modification of the ingredient composition of confectionery products by eliminating or replacing sugar by other functional food ingredients should help to reduce the glycemic index and calorie content of these products.

Biotechnological optimization of nutrient composition of fermented dairy drink

The receipt based on the results of carried out studies is substantiated and technology of the new fermented dairy drink containing whole milk and whey with inulin (Jerusalem artichoke extract) and optimizing initial mineral composition of raw material has been developed. The starters ascertaining optimal organoleptic properties of the drink have been selected. It has been established that Jerusalem artichoke and its derivatives in the form of syrups and extracts stimulate fermentative processes of technological microflora, with maximum activity observed with Jerusalem artichoke extract. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the drink have been defined during storage. The possibility to optimize the nutrient composition of fermented dairy product by means of introducing of Jerusalem artichoke extract into milk-protein base has been demonstrated. It has been calculated that consumption of 100 g of fermented dairy drink enriched with Jerusalem artichoke extract makes it possible to satisfy the physiological needs (recommended daily allowance – RDA) for babies from 0 to 3 months in vitamins B1 , B2 and B6 by 25–35% and in minerals P, K, and Ca by 20, 68, 34, 26%. For adults receiving 250 g of fermented beverage meets RDA for vitamins B1 , B2 and B6 by 10–19% and in the macronutrients P, K, Ca – by 25–35%. Designed fermented dairy drink supplemented with natural plant ingredient possesses increased antioxidant activity and may be recommended for mass consumption without any limitations.

Study of biological value of beef produced by interspecies hybrids of domestic cattle and wild yaks

The comparative study of the chemical composition and biological values of beef produced by hybrids of Angus cattle with wild yaks (hybrid beef) and pure-bred Angus cattle (traditional beef) has been carried out. Longissimus muscle samples were used for analysis. It was observed, that the hybrid beef samples had the practically equal protein content comparing to traditional beef (21,1 vs. 21,6 per cent) but were characterized by the lower fat content (1,2 vs. 2,5 per cent). The higher biological value of hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef has been shown. The value of protein-quality index, calculated as the ratio of tryptophan amino acid to oxyprolin and characterizing the ratio of high biological value proteins to low biological value proteins was 8,1 vs. 5,7. The values of amino acid indexes [ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to non-essential amino acids (NAA) and ratio of EAA to the total amount of amino acids (TAA)] were EAA/NAA=0.77 vs. 0.65 and EAA/TAA=0.43 vs. 0.39. The protein of hybrid beef was characterized by the higher content of a number of the essential amino acids: by a factor of 1,77 for threonin, 1,23 – for valin, 1,09 – for lysin, 1,17 – for leucine and 1,19 – for tryptophan. The amount of the essential amino acids in 1 gram of protein of the hybrid beef was 434,7 mg against 393,1 mg for traditional beef. It has been shown, that the protein of the hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef is characterized by the higher values of the amino acid scores calculated for EAA.
Methods of food quality control and safety

Sensory analysis. Study of influence of assessors training duration on the panel efficiency

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the assessors group at different stages of training and estimate the influence of the duration of their training on the quality of the data obtained. The optimal training duration to work with descriptive methods, which is necessary and sufficient for reproducible evaluation of sensory properties has been determined. The training was conducted at three stages during 108 hours. It has been demonstrated that statistically significant differences among products can be already determined by assessors after 8 hours of training. By increasing the training duration the effectiveness of assessors was improved. Completion of training course led to a significant reduction in the mean square error for some sensory characteristics of the products and the variability of the scores.

Aleksey Anatolyevich Korolev (to the 50 th anniversary of birthday)

Index of articles

Index of articles published in the journal «Problems of nutrition» for 2014


All articles in our journal are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0 license)

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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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