Modern trends of research in nutritiology and nutrition hygiene
Advances in instrumental analysis and new knowledge in biology and medicine have allowed nutritiology and nutrition hygiene: 1) to go from studies of dietary intake of the population and the establishment of standards nutrient and energy needs to ensuring of public health and prevention of diseases by changing the composition and structure of nutrition; 2) to assume that the nutrition includes all the processes of cell and organism vital functions; 3) to develop an individualized nutrition and dietetics purposeful; 4) to evaluate energy value of ontogeny; 5) to ensure food safety at all stages of its manufacture; 6) to combine many disciplines into a single unit to achieve scientific and practical problems. Nutritiology achievements of the 21 st century will be based on the development of cell biology as a basis for systematic studies of ontogenetic development of a unicellular or multicellular organism on the external factors, including food. OMICs-disciplines should be used for these purposes in order to understand the physiological meaning of transmission and coding signals to food interaction of genes, proteins, metabolites inside cells or in the organism, to reveal the mechanisms of encoding cell responses to these specific interactions. The nutrition process covers all aspects of life of the cell and organism. Postnatal ontogenetic development of placental mammals has its own specific energy dimension. Consumption of 100 kJ/kg body weight provides 1/50 000 of their ontogeny. A hypothesis of lifespan regulating by changing the rate of ontogenetic development (aging) of organs and tissues of mammals, depending on the amount of energy consumed and food has been offered. Heterochronicity of internal organs and tissues aging depends on the work they are doing and the specific impact on them of food and substances. Research should be directed at identifying the regulatory properties of food substances on pre- and postnatal ontogenetic development of human. This knowledge will serve as a basis for the development of care to ensure the health of the population.
Phylogenesis of function of trophology. Functional difference between visceral fat cells and subcutaneous adipocytes
Millions of years ago visceral fat cells (VFC) started developing from subcutaneous adipocytes. From the early stages of phylogenesis, VFC have fulfilled the biological functions of trophology and homeostasis, endoecology and adaptation. Subcutaneous adipocytes fulfill the phylogenetically later function of locomotion. VFC have no insulin receptors, while subcutaneous adipocytes are insulin-dependent. Within the frames of the biological function of trophology both VFC and subcutaneous adipocytes realize the following biological reactions: exotrophy, deposition, and endotrophy. We believe that impaired deposition of fatty acids (FA) as triglycerides (TG) is the major cause of obesity. Impaired function of VFC (metabolic syndrome) and insulin-dependent adipocytes (obesity) are key factors of metabolic pandemias. Fatty cells absorb FA as nonpolar TG, deposit FA in lipid drops, and secrete them into extracellular medium as polar nonesterified FA. VFC were formed in paracrine communities of enterocytes, where microsomal protein that transports triglycerides formed early chylomicrons. In pathophysiologic, regulatory and functional aspects VFC and adipocytes are different cells; therefore, they should be analyzed separately. Not only VFC, but also all loose connective tissue cells at the level of cell community secrete various humoral mediators of paracrine regulation; there were no other ways of regulation. Leptin is a specific mediator of VFC, and adiponectin – of subcutaneous adipocytes.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition
Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load
Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17–21 years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins – 17,9 g, fats – 11,9 g, carbohydrates – 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p=0,001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p=0,044), abdominal (p=0,037) and undetermined (p=0,021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p=0,0001), muscular (p=0,012), abdominal (p=0,041) and undetermined (p=0,0018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants.
Influence of combined vitamin deficiency on unconditioned reflexes and learning in growing rats
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined deficiency of all vitamins on the manifestation of unconditioned reflex and learning (in response to an electric current) in growing Wistar rats with initial body weight 53,4±1,2 g (45,5–62,0 g). 20 of 46 tested male rats (latent period of transition from the illuminated chamber to the dark compartment did not exceed 60 s) were included in the experiment. Rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (control and experimental) for the duration of the latent period and body mass. Within 23 days the rats of the control group received a complete semisynthetic diet. Combined vitamin deficiency in tested rats was caused by 5-fold diet decrease of the amount of vitamin mixture without vitamin E. On the 12 th day the second phase of testing was performed, during which the rat received electrocutaneous irritation on paws (current 0,4 mA, 8 seconds) after transition to the dark compartment of the chamber. Preservation of the conducted reflex was performed 24 h and 9 days after training. On the 23 rd day pre-anesthetized with ether rats were taken out from the experiment by decapitation. The content of vitamin A (retinol and retinol palmitate) and E (tocopherols) in plasma and liver and in the sunflower oil was analyzed by HPLC, the level of vitamins B 1 and B 2 in liver and casein by fluorimetric method, blood serum malondialdehyde content – by spectrophotometric method. Reducing of vitamin mixture amount of the diet lead to significant reduction in liver vitamin A, E, B 1 , and B 2 level and in blood plasma vitamin A and E concentration by the end of the experiment, but had no effect on blood plasma MDA concentration. On the 12 th day of vitamin deficiency in rats manifestation of unconditioned reflex (photophobia) has been deteriorated, as evidenced by the significant 3,2-fold increase of latent period of transition to the dark compartment compared with animals fed a complete diet (47,8±15,8 vs 14,8±3,6 sec), but their ability to learn hadn’t been effected. Based on the data that vitamin deficiency, especially of vitamin-antioxidants, causes oxidative stress, and that increase of corticosterone level in hippocampus during aging significantly inhibits the function of the brain, we can assume that increasing of corticosterone level may be one of the cause of the detected cognitive impairment, as isolated vitamin A deficiency in rats increases tissue corticosterone levels.
Assessment of functional food of general version of diet in cardiac hospital
The efficacy of functional food was evaluated in general embodiment diet of cardiological hospital in patients receiving oxygen-containing products (oxygen smoothies) based on protein-carbohydrate raw materials (dairy whey) with dietary fiber. 60 patients were included in local open, prospective, parallel-group study; among them 36 men and 24 women aged 60–75 years, meeting the following criteria: patients with chronic heart failure I–IV functional class, are hospitalized in the cardiology department, have no contraindications to enteral oxygen therapy and sign an informed consent form. The main group comprised 30 patients, which along with standard therapy received enteral oxygen therapy. 30 patients from the control group received standard therapy and aerated non-oxygen mixture (placebo). Standard therapy included cardioprotective drugs, diuretics and concomitant therapy (enzyme preparations) depended upon the clinical status of the patient. Patients received 500 ml of a cocktail within 10–15 minutes daily for 10 days for 1–1,5 hours before the main meal. The studies revealed the most pronounced clinical effect of enteral oxygen therapy in relation to clinical symptoms and side effects caused by drug administrations. After 3–4 procedures patients with chronic heart failure treated with enteral oxygen therapy had a decrease in fatigue, increase physical performance, improve appetite, emotional lability. By the end the positive dynamics of oxygen therapy on the above grounds was detected in 90% of patients. Monitoring pulse oximetry showed a significant increase of oxygen saturation as a result of the course of enteral oxygen therapy: oxygen saturation increased from 98,13±0,13 to 99,17±0,13% (p<0,001) while in the control group from 98,12±0,20 to 98,19±0,19% (p<0,01). Physical activity increased from 318±15 to 389±13 m (р<0,001), in the control group – from 331±17 to 362±15 m (р<0,05) in the main group on the test results with the 6-minutes walk test. In the main group dyspnea Borg changed from 11 to 7 scores as compared to the control group – from 11 to 9 scores. Analysis of the results showed the advisability of incorporating developed oxygen-containing products in diet therapy of cardiac patients to reduce the severity of side effects from taking of drugs administration to normalize the process of digestion, to improve the overall health of patients.
Hygiene of nutrition
The study of the association of polymorphism rs659366 gene UCP2 c obesity and type 2 diabetes among residents of the Moscow Region
1112 people from Moscow region have been surveyed. Genotyping of rs659366 polymorphism UCP2 gene was performed using allele-specific amplification, result detection in real time and using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphic sites. The study of rs659366 polymorphism of the UCP2 gene has showed that 36,9% of patients had genotype AA, 46,7% – genotype AG, and 16,5% – genotype GG. The frequency of allele A was 60,2%, allele G – 39,8%. BMI, value of fat mass, visceral fat area, serum glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in carriers of A allele in the homozygous and heterozygous state than in carriers of G allele in the homozygous state. Frequency of A allele compared with G allele in obese patients (BMI greater than 30 kg/m 2) was: OR – 1,52; CI (1,24–1,86), p=0,001, and in diabetes mellitus type 2 – OR – 1,22; CI (0,910–1,622), p=0,19.
Hygienic assessment of student’s nutrition through vending machines (fast food)
The article presents the results of a research work on studying the nutrition of students through vending machines (fast food), taking into account consumer priorities of students of medical University, the features and possible consequences of their use by students. The object of study was assortment of products sold through vending machines on the territory of the First Saint-Petersburg Medical University. Net calories, content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load were determined for each product. Information about the use of vending machines was obtained by questionnaires of students 2 and 4 courses of medical and dental faculties by standardized interview method. As was found, most sold through vending machines products has a high energy value, mainly due to refined carbohydrates, and was characterized by medium and high glycemic load. They have got low protein content. Most of the students (87,3%) take some products from the vending machines, mainly because of lack of time for canteen and buffets visiting. Only 4,2% students like assortment of vending machines. More than 50% students have got gastrointestinal complaints. Statistically significant relationship between time of study at the University and morbidity of gastrointestinal tract, as well as the number of students needing medical diet nutrition was found. The students who need the medical diet use fast food significantly more often (46,6 % who need the medical diet and 37,7% who don’t need it).
Condition of protective intestinal microbiota populations under stress exposure in rats received different diets with bioactive food components
The evaluation of the levels of major colon microbiota populations (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, enterobacteria) was carried out in two 15-days experiments on Wistar rats, exposed to stress factor (electric shock) and fed with different diets with the addition of biologic active micronutrients [extract from the leaves of Serratula coronata L. and Enzymatic hydrolyzate of the mussels meat (EHMM)]. In the first experiment animals were fed with a common vivarium diet. In the experimental group the water extract from leaves of Serratula coronata L. as a phytoecdysteroid source (5 mg per 1 kg body weight) was added to water. In the second experiment rats received balanced semisynthetic diet. In the diet of the experimental group the part of the protein (casein) was replaced by the peptides from EHMM. During the experiment the animal body weight was measured. On the 14 th day of the experiment the animals were subjected to stress stimulation [electrodermal stimulation on paws (electric current 0,4 mA for 8 seconds)]. On the last day of the experiment the animals were euthanized by decapitation and micro-ecological research of protective microbiota populations in the cecal contents was carried out. The relative body weight increase was recorded in both experiments. In the second experiment in animals receiving EHMM this index (68,2±3,0%) was considerably higher than in the control group and in the experimental group receiving no EHMM (57,2±4,0 and 59,7±2,8% respectively). The results of the microecological study showed different effect of diets with biologically active micronutrients on the population levels of lactobacilli. In the experiment with common vivarium diet no significant changes of the levels of the studied colon microbiota populations had been recorded in the rats of control group compared with rats of experimental group, exposed to stress factor but received no extract from Serratula coronata L. The decrease of the levels of lactobacilli by the end of the experiment was observed in the experimental group of rats received water extract from the leaves of Serratula coronata L (content of lactobacilli 7,76±0,17 lg CFU/g) compared to those in control group and experimental group of rats received no extract (8,4±0,09 and 8,69±0,07 lg CFU/g respectively). Feeding with the balanced semisynthetic diet with the addition of EHMM or without it had a positive effect on the levels of lactobacilli and their balance with the aerobic component of the Enterobacteriaceae. There was a trend toward increased levels of lactic acid bacteria in the experimental group received EHMM (9,16±0,12 lg CFU/g) compared with the contents in the control group and in the experimental group exposed to stress factor without adding EHMM in the diet (8,74±0,34 and 8,79±0,23 lg CFU/g, respectively). The conclusion about the positive (protective) effect of a semisynthetic diet enriched with peptides from EHMM was made based on the comparison of indicators that reflect the status of non-specific resistance of the organism: the integral criterion of weight gain and the levels of major colon microbiota populations of laboratory animals.
New food products: technology, composition, effectiveness
Anti-radical activity of products of processing of holothurians Cucumaria japonica and their practical application for lipid stabilization
Products of technological and biotechnological modification (acid and enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts) of the holothurian Cucumaria japonica from the Far East region are the complex multicomponent systems containing biologically active agents of a sea origin that has to provide them biological activity. The research objective consisted in quantitative studying of anti-radical properties of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from soft fabrics of a holothurian from the Far East region (Cucumaria japonica) and their influence on oxidation of lipids in fat emulsion products. The reaction with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used as a model system. Radical relating activity of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica varied over a wide range from 48 to 78%. The maximum radical binding activity was noted for acid hydrolyzates. The activity of the hydrolyzate from a nimbus and feelers of Cucumaria japonica was comparable with activity of ionol. It has been defined that levels of manifestation of anti-radical activity depended on a way of technological and biotechnological processing of raw materials. Studying of fractional composition of melanoidins of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica established that they can be divided into fractions – with molecular masses about 10 000 and 1000 Da. The maximum content of melanoidins has been defined in fraction weighing about 1000 Da. Introduction of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in the composition of oil-fat emulsion systems allowed to slow down processes of lipid oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in mayonnaise. Introduction of hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in an oil-fat emulsion product allowed to reduce peroxide value by 22–45%, acid value by 12–35% on the 90 th days of storage. Acid hydrolysates of Cucumaria Japonica most significantly reduce the rate of oxidation and hydrolysis.
Effect of probiotic product containing bifidobacteria and biogel from brown algae on the intestinal microflora and parameters of innate immunity in mice with experimental drug dysbacteriosis
Thе article represents the results of studying the effect of a new fermented product (FP) containing the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium bifidum 791 and Biogel from brown algae Laminaria japonica on the composition of intestinal microflora and parameters of innate immunity in mice with experimental dysbacteriosis, induced by administration of gentamicin in dose of 25 mg per kg body weight during 7 days. The experimental animals received for 6 weeks in addition to the diet FP, which was 2% of the average volume of feed intake. The FP influence was manifested by more rapid reduction of dyspepsia symptoms, restoration of body weight and balance the intestinal microbiocenosis (increasing of bifido- and lactobacteria, typical E. coli, reducing of the bacteria genus Proteus and Clostridium, elimination of S. aureus). As the results of FP administration we observed the statistically significant reduction of endogenous intoxication values and increasing of the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, related to effector cells of innate immunity, compared with animals not receiving FP. Identified effects of FP are due to both its probiotic properties through the presence of bifidobacteria and immunomodulating and enteral sorbtion activities of alginate component.
Effect of a new low-cholesterol meat and vegetal product on correction of simulated lipid metabolism disorders in rats
The paper presents the biomedical evaluation of meat and cereal spread from low-cholesterol raw material with vegetable ingredients, recommended as a functional food. The experimental model with myocardial infarction like changes in hearts of the animals, accompanied by vascular changes similar to atherosclerotic changes in humans, as well as the modeling of the metabolic imbalance of lipids have been carried out by intramuscular injection of epinephrine and unbalanced feeding the animals with food rich in cholesterol, with a high content of carbohydrates and fats. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. The rats in groups 1–3 were induced the cardio distress with intramuscular injection of epinephrine; group IV consisted of intact (healthy) animals. Dramatic changes in biochemical blood status that indicated heart disease have been observed within 2 days after the injection of epinephrine (0,2 ml per 1 kg of animal body weight) to the tested animals. During the experiment a sharp increase in activity of indicator enzymes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST), with a predominance of AST over ALT, along with an increase in LDH activity have been observed. The 1,4–1,6 fold increase in blood serum creatinine has also been found. Later the animals in groups 1, 2, 3 with simulated cardio pathology were fed a ration with intervention of food rich in cholesterol, with a high content of carbohydrates and fats (50% of the diet) for a month for induction of lipid metabolism disorders. An increase in the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides by 3 fold or more has been observed. In addition, an accumulation of sulfhydryl groups has been noted, as evidenced by increased rates of thymol. For further normalization of lipid metabolism, the animals in tested group I were fed the diet with intervention of spread, developed in accordance with GOST 12318-91 «Canned meat «Meat spread»; the rats of group 2 were fed with spread with vegetable supplements (pumpkin by-products and alginates), and group 3 received a standard diet within the next month. The results of biochemical blood serum studies have shown that the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and sulphydryl groups in the experimental groups 1 and 2 decreased, indicating a positive influence on lipid metabolism and prevention of peroxides formation in the organism. These changes were more pronounced when meat product with plant additives and alginate was used in the diet. Only under the application of the meat-vegetable pate cholesterol level ceased to differ from that of the control group of animals. Based on the significant reduction of blood malondialdehyde level, antioxidant properties of vegetable supplements have been proven. The experimental data showed that the spread, developed on the basis of low-cholesterol raw meat with vegetable ingredients (pumpkin by-products and alginates) can be used to correct metabolic disorders of lipids, reducing the risk of cardio pathology in the body.
Methods of food quality control and safety
The determination of glucose, sucrose and fructose by the method of capillary electrophoresis
The possibilities of different regimes of micellar capillary electrophoresis using negative polarity and alkaline electrolyte for determination of glucose, sucrose, fructose in extracts of vegetative organs of plants and products of fruits and grapes processing have been studied. A comparative evaluation of the limits of detection of glucose, sucrose, fructose for developed electrolytes have been performed, the advantages and disadvantages of techniques have been discussed. It is recommended to use an aqueous electrolyte containing 0,5% potassium sorbate, 0,62% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and 0,02% potassium hydroxide. The analyzed components were detected at 254 nm. The sample was dosed hydrodynamically (30 mbar, 5 sec). Negative voltage 16 kV is recommended, current – 54±4 μA, capillary thermostating at 24 °C is applied, the analysis time – 15 min. The detection limits for fructose and glucose is 0,03 g/dm3 to 0,07 g of sucrose/dm3 . Linearity is stored for each component to 5,0 g/dm 3 inclusive. Electrophoretic mobility of carbohydrates was (10-4sm2V-1sec-1): fructose – 3,12, glucose – 3,03, sucrose – 2,74. Approximate time of release: glucose – 13 min, sucrose – 13,5 min, fructose – 12,5 min. The developed options for mass concentration determining of mono- and disaccharides provide complete separation of the components. Anions, glycerol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and butylene isomers do not affect the analysis results.
Lectures for specialists
Methodological approaches to the creation of healthy food
The substantiation of necessity of creation of healthy food products and their classification. Formulated methodological approaches to the creation of healthy food: enriched, functional and specialized purpose.