Content
2 . 2015
Hygiene of nutrition

The study of the association of polymorphism rs5219 gene KCNJ11 with obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes among residents of the Moscow Region

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The study involved 1,050 people living in the Moscow region, including 311 men and 739 women. Genotyping of KCNJ11 rs5219 polymorphisms was performed using allele-specific amplification, result detection in real time and using TaqMan-probes complementary to polymorphic DNA regions. Results of the study of KCNJ11 rs5219 gene polymorphism showed that 14,2% of the patients had TT genotype, 44,8% – CT genotype, 41,0% – СС genotype. The frequency of the mutant T allele was 36,6%, C allele – 63,4%. The frequency of the T allele didn’t significantly differ in individuals with obesity (BMI30 kg/m2) and individuals with a BMI<30kg/m2 (38,8% and 35,7%, respectively), OR – 1,14; CI (0,907–1,439), p=0,26. At the same time, the amount of energy expenditure at rest, calculated per kg lean body weight, and serum content of uric acid in were significantly higher in individuals with KCNJ11 rs5219 polymorphism, both in homo-, and in the heterozygous type. The frequency of the T allele and TT genotype in patients with hyperglycemia was higher than in the comparison group. Genotype TT is associated with type 2 diabetes (OR=2,35, CI: 1,018–5,43, p=0,04).

Lead toxicity at its joint administration with nanostructured silica

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Nanoparticles (NPs) are present in the composition of the objects in the environment and foods together with contaminants of conventional nature, and may enhance their toxicity in certain conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of nanostructured silicon dioxide (SiO2), widely used as a food additive, on the accumulation and manifestation of the toxic effect of lead (Pb) when co-administered to rats in the subacute experiment. Rats were divided into 6 groups. Animals of the 1st group (control) received distilled water intragatrically by gavage. Rats of the 2nd and 3rd groups received dispersion of SiO2 NPs with primary particle size of 5–30 nm in the doses of 1 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of Group 4 – lead acetate in the dose of 20 mg of lead/kg body weight, group 5 and 6 – Pb acetate and SiO2 NPs dispersion in doses, respectively 1 and 100 mg/kg body weight, for 22 days by intragastric gavage. The weight of the body and organs, standard haematological parameters, serum protein, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, glucose level, and alkiline phosphatase, ALT and AST activity, urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were determined. Hepatocyte apoptosis was studied by flow-cytometry. The content of Pb, cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mg), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co) in organs (liver, kidney, brain) was determined by ICP-MS. The result showed that the introduction of Pb, but not NPs resulted in a significant increase in the mass of the kidneys and testes. Urinary excretion of 5-ALA in animals from groups 4–6 significantly (p<0,001) increased, compared with animals 1–3 groups, not influenced by SiO2 NPs administration (p>0,05). Introduction of SiO2 NPs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in blood hemoglobin, the effect of lead on this index had the opposite direction. Marked changes were noticed in the levels of glucose and serum albumin in combined exposure of Pb and NPs. No additional adverse effect was noticed in Pb co-administration with NPs on haematological parameters and hepatocyte apoptosis. Pb accumulation was revealed in the liver, kidneys and brain in animals of groups 4–6, which was not enhanced by the combined effects of NPs (p>0,05). The average biosubstrates content of Cd, As, Se, Zn, Cu, Al, Cr, Mn, Co was similar in animals treated and untreated with Pb, and demonstrated no dependence on NPs dose. The only alleged adverse impact on the trace element profile was almost twofold significant increase in the content of Al in the liver in animals treated with lead and SiO2 NPs in the highest dose (0,859±0,085 mg/kg vs 0,468±0,065 mg/kg in the 4th group, p<0,05). In the absence of lead exposure, this effect was not observed. Thus, there wasn’t obtained any unequivocal evidence of lead adverse effects potentiation in the case of a joint income with SiO2 NPs. Moreover, for some indicators, such as weight gain, serum AST activity, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte parameters, the introduction of the SiO2 NPs «abolished» to a certain extent some of the adverse effects of lead, which may be due to the effects of its enterosorption. Investigation of the influence of different types of NPs on the intestinal absorption and toxicity of various chemical contaminants should be continued.

Epidemiologic aspects of energy drink intake in Russian Federation

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Article examines the impact of «energy» drinks that have become so popular in recent decades on people. As a research tool a short structured questionnaire was used. It included questions about whether the respondent used «energy» drinks and, if yes, how often; whether he/she had an experience of using it with alcohol; if one is informed about the affect of substances that are included in the drink on the organism; reason of using; the reason of debut consumption; primary feeling during and after consumption; primary feeling after taking a large dose of «energy» drink. Each respondent also pointed out sex and noted whether he/she wanted to learn more about «energy» drinks and effects of their use on the organism. Within 3 years of study 1377 people (682 men and 695 women) aged 12 to 42 were surveyed. The results showed that 89,0% of respondents consumed energy drinks in some to some degree, and from these 7,4% used it constantly (at least 1 can a day). 24,0% of respondents had an experience of taking «energy» drinks with alcohol. With that, the number of men who used «energy» drinks with alcohol, prevails over the same number of women: 60,3% (n=199) and 39,7% (n=131), respectively (p=0,003). Relationship between age of respondents and features of using as well as effects of «energy drinks» was also statistically proven. The elder the group is the less is the number of responders who drinks energetics constantly (Rs=-0,88, p<0,001), who knows about the affect of caffeine and other substances on the organism (Rs=-0,93, p<0,001), who drinks energetics forced by desire to get new feelings (Rs=-0,78, p<0,001), exams (Rs=-0,73, p<0,001), who feels fatigue (Rs=-0,79, p<0,001), and get headache (Rs=-0,8, p<0,001), the more is the number of responders who noticed that the primal feeling after energetics drinking was rising of working efficiency (Rs=0,76, p<0,001) and excessive motional activity (Rs=0,59, p=0,01). Basing on the data obtained basic principles of reducing the rate of use of energy drinks program were developed.

Diet treatment

To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy

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In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

Evaluation of physical development in children with classical phenylketonuria

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Classical phenylketonuria (PKU) is hereditary disease, which is based on the disturbance of phenylalanine conversion to tyrosine. The basic treatment of PKU is low phenylalanine diet. Prolonged restriction of natural protein may have a negative impact to PKU patient growth and physical development. The objective was to evaluate the physical development of patients with classical PKU at birth and on the diet based on the products with different chemical composition without phenylalanine. 257 PKU patients have been examined with the computer program «WHO Anthroplus 2009». All patient were born at term. Z-score of body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) to age has been retrospectively estimated. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – 101 children born in 1980–1993 were fed by unadapted specialty products based on protein hydrolyzate with restricted phenylalanine, and group 2 – 156 children born in 1995–2012 were fed by contemporary amino acid mixtures without phenylalanine. All newborn PKU patients had the middle for age Z-score of weight and BMI, 21% of neonates had high Z-score growth. Before the diet therapy BMI Z-score was normal in 84,1% patients in group 1 and 87,2% patients of group 2. After 6 mo of treatment with low phenylalanine diet the number of patient with normal BMI Z-score was 71,3% in group 1 against 95,6% in group 2. Thus, using of modern amino acid mixtures without phenylalanine, enriched with essential nutrients can promote the normal physical development of PKU patients.

Micronutrients in nutrition

Assessment of the North resident’s nutrition supply with view of the content of macro- and microelements in food

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In order to study the body nutrition supply in 17–37 year-old Magadan residents, among them Europeans (control group, n=200) and Indigenous Minorities of the North (IMN, n=56), we examined hair samples of the subjects and ascertained the content of 25 essential minerals and trace elements using the method of atom-emission and mass spectrometry with the inductively bonded argon plasma. At the same time, these elements were detected in drinking water and in local food products including samples of muscles and milt (testes) of salmon (Salmoidae), fished out in the Okhotsk Sea near shore. When comparing the values of the examined male Europeans and subjects IMN, the latter demonstrated reliably higher Ca (373,37 mcg/g vs. 256,72 mcg/g), Mg (34,09 mcg/g vs. 24,89 mcg/g), P (184,30 mcg/g vs. 157,60 mcg/g), I (1,13 mcg/g vs. 0,50 mcg/g); in the examined females – Mg (56,66 mcg/g vs. 32,30 mcg/g) and P (181,35 mcg/g vs. 149,40 mcg/g). Besides, the IMN examinees, both males and females, demonstrated reliably lower Fe values in comparison with the control group. When comparing male and female subjects, we found the first ones to be reliably higher in As, Cr, K, Na, I, Cd and Li but lower in Ca, Co, Mg and Mn. The present study provides data on the content of minerals and trace elements in some food products, widely represented in food ration of the residents of Magadan town. Interspecies differences in the content of chemicals also conformed to the maximum permissible concentration approved for food products, but Co, Cu, Na and Zn values in Chum salmon proved to be reliably higher than those in Coho salmon. Fe levels being within 3,8–4,9 mcg/g were practically similar to fresh-water fish. The contents of K and P in the examined fish species were found as rather significant (3448–8879 mcg/g and 2795–3535 mcg/g, respectively).

Effectiveness of the program «School Milk» for the prevention of iodine deficiency

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Republic of Bashkortostan refers to iodine-deficient regions of Russia. The incidence of endemic multinodular goiter in 2012 in the Republic amounted to 33,2 per 100 thousand of the population. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of group iodine prophylaxis of schoolchildren through the use of iodized milk. The study included 181 children of primary school (pre-pubertal) age (8–10 years), it has been carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO and the International Council for Control of iodine deficiency disorders using a unified system of identification of iodine deficiency states. Level of physical development was assessed according to anthropometric measurements, which were conducted by centile distribution tables according to age and sex, and the individual assessment of physical development was determined by the level of feature by its position in a number of centile. Assessment of iodine deficiency was carried out by determining levels of iodine excretion in a single urine sample. Iodine concentration in urine was determined by ceric ion-arsenious acid method. Frequency of iodine deficiency varying degrees before the iodine prophylaxis among urban children was 57,0%, among rural – 92,3%. Urban junior schoolchildren showed severe iodine deficiency in 12,7% and moderate one in 16,4% of the cases, while in the countryside their prevalence was higher – 27,4 and 35,2%, respectively. It was revealed that the number of children whose body growth values are within the average values is 36% in urban children, and 48,4% in rural areas. It should be noted that the low and very low body height predominate in rural students, it makes up 16,1% (while in the town it makes up 2,3%). Iodine prophylaxis contributed to a significant reduction of iodine deficiency in children. In the town the median urinary iodine exceeded 100 mg/L and amounted to 159,4 mg/L. After iodine prophylaxis 82,5% of urban children and 72,1% of rural showed normal urinary iodine. When comparing the results of clinical and laboratory studies before and after the group prevention of iodine deficiency there has been revealed a positive trend in terms of reflecting the tensions of thyroid status.

Micronutrient composition of grape growing in Dagestan

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Micronutrient content in Pearl Zala, Pearl Saba, Creamy, and Amber Muscat varieties of grape has been determined. The ultimate analysis has been made by the atomic-absorption flame photometry; ascorbic acid has been determined by the titrometric analysis; rutin, niacin, and carotene have been studied by the colorimetric method. It has been found that the content of potassium (2673,8 mg/kg), calcium (349,0 mg/kg), iron (35,9 mg/kg), silicon (611,3 mg/kg), manganese (0,89 mg/kg) and vitamin C (5,3 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearl Zala grapes, while the content of zinc (0,31 mg/kg), nicotinic acid (10,9 mg/dm3) and carotene (0,33 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearls Saba. Amber Muscat grape has been found to have the highest concentration of sodium (151,4 mg/kg), phosphorus (466,8 mg/kg ), magnesium (221,6 mg/kg), aluminum (68,5 mg/kg), cobalt (0,120 mg/kg) and copper (1,91 mg/kg) in comparison with other grape varieties. It has been found that the content of ascorbic acid and rutin differ 1,5–1,6 fold, of magnesium, iron, silicon and potassium – 1,7–1,8 fold, of calcium and phosphorus – 2,2–2,5 fold, carotene – 4,1 times, aluminum, sodium and nicotinic acid – 4,7–5,5 fold, cobalt and copper – 8,6–8,7 fold, zinc and manganese – 10,3–22,2 fold.

Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines

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The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex – catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%.

Methods of food quality control and safety

Standardization of the method of osmolality determination of specialized foods

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Binding requirements for the application and enforcement at the customs territory for specialized food products have been installed in the established documents of the Customs Union. The category of specialized foods consists of food products for babies, for pregnant and lactating women, dietary products (clinical and preventive nutrition), sport nutrition. In addition to the General safety requirements that must be met by specialized food products, the value of osmolality must be regulated in some kinds of such products. The specialists of Institute of Nutrition developed national standard “Specialized foods. Method of osmolality determination” for the purpose of standardization of a method of osmolality determining. Product samples for baby and sport nutrition which are realized on domestic market have been researched. Specialized products for baby food had osmolality from 290 to 327 mOsm/kg, that corresponded to the requirements of regulatory documents applicable to this product group. Osmolality of carbohydrate and mineral drink for athletes was in the range from 308 to 330 mOsm/kg, confirming their belonging to the isotonic drinks. The method can be used in researches for developing of the new products with specific predetermined chemical composition and in clinical practice for the osmolality control of products for enteral nutrition.

Non-enzymatic glycosylation of dietary protein in vitro

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Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins, based on discovered by Mayarn reaction of carbohydrate aldehyde group with a free amino group of a protein molecule, is well known to experts in biochemistry of food industry. Generated brown solid in some cases give the product marketable qualities – crackling bread – in others conversely, worsen the product. The biological effects of far-advanced products of non-enzymatic protein glycosylation reaction have not been studied enough, although it was reported previously that they are not split by digestive enzymes and couldn’t be absorbed by animals. The objective of this work was to compare the depth of glycosylation of different food proteins of animal and vegetable origin. The objects of the study were proteins of animal (casein, lactoglobulin, albumin) and vegetable (soy isolate, proteins of rice flour, buckwheat, oatmeal) origin, glucose and fructose were selected as glycosylation agents, exposure 15 days at 37° C. Lactoglobulin was glycosylated to a lesser extent among the proteins of animal origin while protein of oatmeal was glycosylated in the least degree among vegetable proteins. Conversely, such proteins as casein and soya isolate protein bound rather large amounts of carbohydrates. Fructose binding with protein was generally higher than the binding of glucose. The only exception was a protein of oatmeal. When of glucose and fructose simultaneously presented in the incubation medium, glucose binding usually increased while binding of fructose, in contrast, reduced. According to the total amount of carbohydrate (mcg), which is able to attach a protein (mg) the studied food proteins located in the following order: albumin (38) > soy protein isolate (23) > casein (15) > whey protein = rice flour protein (6) > protein from buckwheat flour (3) > globulin (2) > protein of oatmeal (0,3). The results obtained are to be used to select the optimal combination of proteins and carbohydrates, in which the glycosylation during storage will be minimal.

Lectures for specialists

Milk fat globules, as determinants of the nutritional and biological value of goat milk

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This review summarizes the most complete information on such fundamentally important quality parameters of goat milk as the cellular composition of somatic cells and the structure of cytoplasmic debris in milk. It also focuses on the characterization of an essential component of the energetic value and nutritional content of milk – milk fat globules and milk fat globule membranes. The survey also clarifies some of the terms and meanings of physiological processes associated with the formation of the milk of various ruminants and breast milk.
Book review

Review of the monograph «Nutritional factors and health of pregnant women: problems of hygienic and epidemiological safety»/Edited by Academician, Professor V.N. Rakitskiy. – St. Petersburg–Voronezh, 2014. – 366 p.

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This monograph summarizes the domestic and foreign experience in scientific justification for prophylactic and therapeutic nutrition of women before and during pregnancy, and the solution to the problem of prevention of communicable and noncommunicable diseases typical for women in this period. The material on preventive normalization of body weight of women before and during pregnancy, prevention of iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during pregnancy, nutrition during early toxicosis, nutrition in gestosis, nutritional prevention of complications of diabetes in pregnancy, epidemiology of the alimentary dependent pathology incidence of women in the period before and after pregnancy are presented and classified. The materials presented in the monograph are of great importance to improve the knowledge of health professionals on the prevention of alimentary-dependent diseases in pregnant women.

Anniversary

Vladimir Borisovich Spirichev (to the 85th anniversary of the birth

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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
Scopus CiteScore
CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Вскрытие
Medicine today

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