Content
4 . 2015
Analytical review

The nutrition role of milk ceruloplasmin

Annotation

Copper is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. In mammals, it is a structural and redox-based co-factor of the vital enzymes. Besides catalytic function, copper acts as a modulator of cell signaling ways. However copper ions outside the pre-organized coordination sphere can initiate the formation formation of reactive oxygen species through Fenton type reactions. Both deficiency and excess of copper lead to the development of the cardiovascular, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present article the data on copper physiological functions as well as peculiarities of the mechanism of copper safe transport are briefly reviewed. Also the results of investigation of the mechanisms supporting copper homeostasis and mechanistic features of copper homeodynamics in the newborns are summarized. The data on molecular genetic mechanism of the mammary glands, which controls nutrition copper balance for newborns, are analyzed. The role of milk ceruloplasmin as the newborn’s main source of nutritional copper is discussed. The quantity and quality of the baby formula copper-containing additives and their potential longterm health effects are considered.

Biochemistry of nutrition

Genomic, proteomic and metabolomic predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development in obese patients. Part I

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The prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated to obesity require a qualitative increase of efficiency. There are still disputable questions about diagnostic significance of some molecules, including genomic, proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers. We observed 72 obese patients (20 men and 52 women, mean age – 41.3±2.5) and performed ultrasound elastography and ultrasound of liver. We have identified two groups of patients: Group 1 consisted of 50 obese patients without complications (BMI 43.2±0.6), group 2 consisted of 22 patients with obesity complicated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (BMI 45.8±2.3). Determination of the adipokines (adiponectin, ghrelin, resistin, visfatin, and apelin), cytokine (interleukin-6, TNFα) oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL), adhesion molecule sICAM (soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule), fatty acid transporter L-FABP in serum was performed by ELISA. The study of the lipid metabolism involved determination of the concentration of total cholesterols, triglycerides, low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL) by turbidimetry and spectrophotometry by analyzer. In addition, we conducted analysis of polymorphic alleles ε 2, ε3, ε4 of ApoE gene using polymerase chain reaction. Our data indicate that reducing the concentration of adiponectin (0.46–1.71 mсg/ml), increasing the level of glucose (5.57–6.25 mmol/l), triglycerides (2.06–3.94 mmol/l), TNFα (5.07–16.68 pg/ml) and L-FABP (11.62–23.76 pg/ml) are predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese patients, and the presence of genotype ε3/ε4 of ApoE gene is a poor prognostic marker of severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Diet treatment

Features of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease

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The present review summarizes the current data of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Numerous studies have shown that the diet can affect the modifiable risk factors for CHD that is the basis of primary and secondary prevention of this disease. The main areas of personalization of nutrition is the selection of an adequate energy value, a certain quota of protein, fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as other micronutrients that may influence the development of coronary artery disease. Caloric restriction of the diet in overweight patients is the most important factor of weight loss, independent of macronutrient composition of the diet. Diets with higher dietary protein content increase the rate of weight loss and improve blood lipid profile, but have a short-term effect. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, numerous studies have shown that replacing saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease. Several studies have shown that increasing the glycemic load is accompanied by an elevated risk of CHD, especially in women. Personalized dietary treatment on the basis of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of CHD and with the individual characteristics of a particular patient (sex, age, heredity, nutritional status, physical activity) is becoming increasingly important. Personalization of the diet provides a positive effect on risk factors for coronary heart disease, on the quality of life and increases the effectiveness of diet-therapy.

Low calorie diet influence optimization on body composition at obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure

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In open prospective monocentric study in 3 parallel groups we studied the effectiveness of correction of body composition using low calorie diet therapy with inclusion of specialized food products (SFP) – sources of polyphenols and iridoids made on the basis of the juice of Morinda citrifolia L. fruits. We studied 90 patients aged from 30 to 50 years old with grade III obesity and clinically expressed secondary diastolic heart failure. The duration of diet therapy was 42 days. It was shown that low-calorie diet has non-optimal effect on the body composition in morbidly obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure, namely leading to the expressed loss of body fatless (7.2%, p=0.00008) and muscle mass (by 16.6%, p=0.00004); at the same time the reduction of total body weight is noted only by 2.3% (p=0.053), reduction of waist measurement by 1.3% (p=0.028) and reduction of hips measurement by 1.3% (p=0.09), accompanied by the reduction of body fat by 8.5% (p=0.000017) and of liquid by 7.3% (p=0.0018). The introduction of the SFP into the diet optimizes the effect of low calorie diet therapy on the anthropometric parameters and body composition. The most important effect of the SFP is the ability to prevent the excess loss of muscle mass in patients, and this effect is being dose-dependent. The loss of muscle mass in two groups of patients was 3.1–4.1% after 6 weeks of diet therapy, while in the control group it was 8.5% (p=0.0051). We have concluded that the inclusion of the SFP, manufactured on the basis Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) juice to the low calorie diet allows to initiate mainly the loss of the body fat with the simultaneous protection of active cellular mass, which is without doubt can be considered as the advantage compared to the standard low calorie diet.

Hygiene of nutrition

Body mass index and other anthropometric parameters of the physical state in relation with age and individual-typological specific of women constitution

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The physical state of body construction of 651 practically health women 20–55 years old were studied by using a complex of anthropometric and bioelectric methods (conditional norm, slavonians, inhabitants of Moscow region). The leptosome constitutional group was established in 152 cases (23.3%), mesosome group was exposes in 259 cases (39.8%), megalosome group was revealed in 189 cases (29.0%) and indeterminate group was fixed in 78 cases (8.0%). Women of mesoplastic somatotype were established in 26.9%, sthenoplastic somatotype – in 16.7%, picnic somatotype – in 13.7%, subathletic somatorype – in 11.5%, euriplastic somatotype – in 12.3%, athletic somatotype – in 5.2% and asthenic somatotype – in 1.7%. Sizes and weight parameters were depending on type of women body construction. Norm of body mass index for asthenic women was fixed as 16.9; for sthenoplastic somatotype – 20.3; for athletic somatotype – 23.1; for subathletic somatotype – 24.2; for mesoplastic somatotype – 24.6; for euriplastic somatotype – 24.7; for picnic somatotype – 26.2. The length of women body was varied from 158.2±0.5 (152.0–165.0) cm for sthenoplastic somatotype and 159.6±0.4 (152.0–164.8) cm for mesoplastic somatotype to 169.4±1.7 (162.2–187.4) cm for athletic somatotype. Body weight was also in correspondence with type of constitution. It was 47.8±0.6 (44.2–54.6) kg for asthenic somatotype, 50.6±0.4 (42.6–54.2) kg for sthenoplastic somatotype, 62.2±0.2 (56.3–64.9) kg for mesoplastic somatotype, 68.6±0.7 (64.5–82.7) kg for picnic somatotype, 66.2±1.0 (62.0–76.5) kg for athletic somatotype, 68.2±1.0 (63.4–76.5) kg for subathletic somatotype and 75.0±1.0 (68.4–92.5) kg for euriplastic somatotype. Mass of bone component was minimal for women of picnic somatotype (6.4±0.1 kg) as well as asthenic somatotype (7.3±0.3 kg) and maximal for subathletic (9.3±0.1 kg) and euriplastic (9.4±0.1 kg) somatotypes. Skeletal muscles mass was varied from 18.7±0.4 kg (asthenic somatotype) to 30.2±0.4 kg (athletic somatotype). Fat tissue mass was varied from 7.0±0.2 kg (asthenic somatotype) to 32.2±0.2 kg (euriplastic somatotype). There were established intercommunications between women constitutional characteristics and pecualiarities of their body construction.

Toxicological assessment of nanostructured silica. III. Microecological, hematological indices, state of cellular immunity

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This paper is the third in a series of publications on the experimental study of subacute oral toxicity of nanostructured silicon dioxide (SiO2). We used commercial nanostructured SiO2, obtained by hydrolysis of tetrachlorosilane in the gaseous phase, with the size of the primary nanoparticles (NPs) of 5–30 nm. The aqueous dispersion of SiO2 after treatment with ultrasound was administered to rats with initial weight of 80±5 g for the first 30 days by intragastric gavage and further for 60 days with diets in doses of 0,1; 1,0; 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day. Animals of the control group were treated with deionized water. The amount of basic and transient populations of gut microbiocenosis, hematological indexes were measured using standard methods. Specific content of the B-lymphocytes (CD45RA+), total T-lymphocytes (CD3+), T-helper cells (CD4+), T-cytotoxic cells (CD8+), NK-cells (CD161a+) in general population of lymphocytes was evaluated by flow cytometry; serum cytokine levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 were determined by ELISA. No significant changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the intestinal microbiota populations regardless of the dose of administered nanomaterial have been found. This gave reason to believe that the postulated mechanism of the toxic effects of the NPs of SiO2, mediated by modification of the composition of the intestinal microflora and the corresponding changes in its functional activity, apparently, is not realized. The main target of nanostructured SiO2 was the T-cellular system of the immune system of animals, that was manifested in the significant decrease of the number of leukocytes (33%), number of T-helper cells (13%), CD4/CD8 ratio (27%) and increasing the number of cytotoxic lymphocytes (19%) and the level of TNF-α (590%). The value of the maximum dose (NOAEL) of nanostructured SiO2, has no effect on T-cell immunity was not more than 100 mg / kg body weight per day.

Analysis of antioxidant status and actual diet of students

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The study of the features of the antioxidant status and dietary intake of students is highly relevant, since this population cohort is the future labor potential of society. 40 female students (mean age – 22.4±0.6 years) living in hostel dormitories (n=20) and rented apartments (n=20) were surveyed. To assess the nutrition the method of questioning within 5 days, including weekends has been used. Personal energy consumption per diem has been calculated by table-keeping method. It was found that, retinol blood serum content (measured spectrofluorimetrically) in students living in dormitories was 1.45 fold lower than that in students living in rented apartments (1.28±0.66 vs 1.86±0.17 mmol/l, p<0.001). When analyzing the changes of the integral parameter of antioxidant defense system (the total antioxidant activity assessed using as a model system a suspension of egg yolks lipoprotein) a decrease of this parameter with respect to standards for the majority of the surveyed women (65% of students living in dorms and 80% of students living in rented apartments) has been noted. The energy value of the daily ration for girls in both groups (1375±626 kcal – in a dormitory and 1731±547 kcal – in a rented apartment) was lower than energy expenditure (1789±202 and 1808±234 kcal/day, respectively), with higher energy value in students living in rented apartments (p<0.001). Carbohydrates prevailed in the diet of students living in dormitories (417±207 g/day vs 289±131 g/day in female students living in rented apartments, p<0.0001) while in the diet of the students living in rented apartments fats (110.5±55.7 g/day, compared with that of the students living in the hostel – 66.1±50.8 g/day, p<0.0001 ) and proteins (99.1±47.9 vs. 81.6±42.7 g/day, p<0.001) prevailed. Thus, the high-risk group with regard to adaptive capacity and unbalanced diet are students living in dormitories, with a crucial role played by low material support.

The study of rs1800012 polymorphism of the alpha1- chain collagen type 1 gene in moscow women and children with different level of bone strength

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The frequency of rs1800012 polymorphism of alpha1-chains of type 1 collagen gene (COL1A1) was studied by real-time PCR in 422 Moscow women and children, including pregnant women (n=96), lactating (n=29) and non-pregnant women (n=28) and preschool children (2–6 years, n=76) and school children (7–16 years, n=193) with different levels of bone strength (BS) as determined by ultrasound densitometry. It was found that the decrease in the value of the BS (Z-score<-1) was observed in 60% of women, 54% of preschool children and 48% of school-aged children. In the surveyed cohort the predominant genotype of rs1800012 polymorphism COL1A1 gene was GG (55.1%), the frequency of the genotype TT – 7.6%, of T-allele – 26.2%. There were no statistically significant relationships of BS with a particular genotype of rs1800012 polymorphism of COL1A1 gene in all examined women. A positive but not statistically significant association of T allele with a risk BS reduction was found in non-pregnant and pregnant women (OR=2.143, p=0.31 and OR=1.227, p=0.55, respectively). For preschool and school-aged children T allele was not associated with the risk of BS reduction. In school-age children a statistically significant inverse association of T allele with the risk of BS reduction was shown (OR=0.621 with p=0.037), available also as a tendency in preschool children.

Features of food priorities in urban population of Kazakhstan in regard of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat

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The diseases, associated with metabolism disorders, are now considered as the most common in the world, their prevalence has reached epidemic indicator values in both developed and developing countries. One of the most important methods of treatment and correction of dyslipidemic disorders and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism is the changing of eating behavior, including the literacy of consumers when choosing foods. The most significant indicators of the value of products for patients with metabolic disorders are the glycemic index and fat content. The frequency of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat in urban population of Kazakhstan has been investigated. A random, stratified by sex and age sampling from the number of residents (n=8219) of large cities of Kazakhstan at the age of 18–73 years has been covered. The study was performed using a specially designed questionnaire, including detailed questions on assessment of eating behavior, eating habits and diet. It has been revealed that foods with a high glycemic index and significant fat content are the predominant in frequency of consumption by the urban population of Kazakhstan. About 90% of the citizens consumed bread and bakery products daily or several times a week. Pies, cakes and cookies are consumed daily or several times per week by 35% of the surveyed, pasta products – 57%, cereals – 68% of the urban population. Average daily diet of fruit and vegetable set of urban residents of Kazakhstan represented 80% of the potatoes, carrots and beets. Tea and coffee admission is traditionally combined with the intake of sugar and sweets. More than 70% of surveyed population consume butter daily or several times a week. The excessive intake of foods with a large amount of fat and high glycemic index against the background of the deficiency of complete protein remains an urgent problem for several years. The obtained results dictate the need of development and implementation of targeted regional programs for continuous instruction of the population on healthy nutrition basics with the ultimate goal to improve the health of the population of the Republic as a whole.

Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions

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Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (p<0.05), indicating a higher safety of consumption of potatoes produced in Russia. When studying the isotopic D/H composition of fresh juices it was found that the highest deuterium content was in the juice from the pears, imported from Argentina (δD=-72‰), while the lowest concentration of deuterium was observed in the juice from the Egyptian potatoes (δ=-358‰). In general, significantly lower deuterium content was determined in fresh juices made from potatoes and cabbage grown in different countries, in comparison with other fresh juices from fruits and vegetables. The smallest range of differences in the isotopic D/H was composed in fresh juices from tomato, pomegranate and oranges of Turkish manufacturers (deuterium concentration ranged in them from -221 to -214‰), that can be used to confirm the geographical origin of fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. The data reflecting the antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in the juices, allow us to recommend the latter as additional criteria when assessing the quality of food products.

The study of the peculiarities of metabolism in individuals with rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene

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A total of 104 people, among them were 18 men and 86 women aged 18 to 67 years – people in the Moscow region of the Russian Federation, in the sanatorium treatment. Association embodiment rs9939609 FTO obesity was studied using allele-specific amplification, detection results in real time using TaqManprobes complementary DNA polymorphisms. The frequency of the mutant allele in individuals was 47.0%, while the TT genotype was detected in 25.0% of cases, AT – in 56.0%, AA – in 19.0%. In men, prevalence rates of obesity risk allele (A) is higher than in women. In individuals with obesity (BMI over 30 kg/m2) indicated the presence of more AA genotypes (27.8%) compared to individuals with a body mass index of less than 30 kg/m2 (14.1%) and a high frequency of occurrence (54.2 versus 43.0%) risk allele A. Compared with individuals with genotype TT, the examinees with the AA genotype rs9939609 FTO gene was significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass. The same patients energy expenditure at rest value, calculated per kg of lean body mass or muscle, was slightly less than with TT genotype. In individuals with the AA genotype rs9939609 FTO gene compared with the TT genotype had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and serum iron in the background significantly elevated concentrations of uric acid. Thus, the evaluation of patients with the use of innovative technologies in a spa treatment allows their personal alimentary correction for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases.

Micronutrients in nutrition

Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination

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With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38–40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) and riboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavinbinding protein) was determined on the 3–10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42,9% – both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17,1% did not use vitamin complexes either during pregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28,6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins B1 and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35,7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (per g creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins in vitamin-mineral supplements for lactating women, providing vitamin content of breast milk at an optimal level, or intended specifically for infants, nowadays is extensively discussed.

New sources of food

Nutrition and biological value of food parts of a trade bivalve mollusk Anadara broughtoni

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Currently, the human diet includes different new products of sea fishing, including non-fish – bivalves and gastropods, holothurias, echinoderms, jellyfishes that demands careful studying of their chemical composition. The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional and biological value of all soft parts of the burrowing bivalve MOLLUSK Anadara broughtoni from the Far East region. It was established that food parts of a bivalve were significantly flooded (water content – 73.5–84.2%), with the minimum water content in the adductor and maximum in the mantle. Dry solids are presented by organic (89–93%) and mineral (7–11%) components. Organic components consist of protein (14.6–20.7%), lipids (1.8–2.3%), carbohydrates (2.1–2.6%). The analysis of amino-acid composition of proteins of food parts of the mollusk of Anadara broughtoni showed the presence of all essential amino acids with slight differences in their content depending on the localization of the protein. All edible parts have tryptophan as the limiting amino acid. Muscle proteins have maximum level of lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine and tyrosine; mantle proteins – leucine, isoleucine and threonine; adductor proteins – valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and cysteine. Predominant nonessential amino acids for proteins of all food pieces are glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine. The coefficient of amino-acid score differences of adductor protein (31.7%) is less than the same of cloak by 3.7%. The indicator «biological value» is maximal for adductor (68.3%), but the difference for muscle is only 0.83%. Mantle proteins are characterized by minimum biological value (64.6%). The coefficient of utility of amino acid composition of protein is maximal for muscle (57.83%), and values for a cloak and an adductor differ slightly (55.81 and 55.96%). Taurine content in food parts of a mollusk Anadara broughtoni is rather high compared to with other bivalve mollusks of the Far East region. Muscle tissue has maximal content of taurine (569.3±28.2 mg/100 g wet tissue), adductor occupies an intermediate position (387.9±18.2 mg/100 g wet tissue) and the minimum content of this amino acid is characteristic for mantle (297.1±13.4 mg/100 g wet tissue).

Discussion

Caffeine in nutrition. Article I. Consumption with food and regulation

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The article presents a review of the literature data on the effect of caffeine contained in a variety of foods on the functions of human, it presents the modern international legal regulatory rules in the consumption of caffeine, and caffeine consumption rules corresponding to the technical regulations of the Customs Union (Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Belaruss). It describes the sources of caffeine in the traditional diet and its consumption, safety evaluation in connection with the acute and chronic caffeine consumption and the value of caffeine as an ingredient in soft drinks tonic.

Anniversary

Anniversary

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CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Вскрытие
Medicine today

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