4 . 2017

The role of a nutritional factor in the development of obstetric and perinatal pathology in obese women

The review presents the literature data on the effect of the nutrition of women on the course of pregnancy and the condition of a fetus. The mother's body during pregnancy is the only source of nutrients for a developing fetus. The woman's nutrition before and during pregnancy affects not only her own health and the development of a fetus, but can also results in the risk of non-infectious diseases and obesity among their children throughout their lives. The data on the effect of poor nutrition of a woman in a pregravidal period on pregnancy and the health of a future child have been presented. This is especially important for pregnant women with obesity because metabolic disorders they have are aggravated by poor nutrition. It has been shown that the lack or excess of nutrients in the presence of maternal obesity contributes to the development of gestational complications and programs the development of metabolic disorders in children.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Changes in the content of catecholamines in blood lymphocytes after food consumption in young men in accordance with pronounced body fat component

We examined practically healthy young men (81 in the ages from 17 to 21 years), the students living in the city of Krasnoyarsk, for whom we defined their somatotypes according to V.P. Chtetzov scheme (1978) and component content of the body (fat, muscle and bone) by caliperometry technique. Catecholamine content (CC) in blood lymphocytes was analysed by luminescence -histochemical technique. Medical examination was carried out both in the fasted state, and in an hour after food intake (mixed breakfast). On an empty stomach CC content was practically the same in the young men of all the compared somatotypes. After food intake, CC statistically meaningful increase was revealed only in abdominal somatotype youngsters as compared to the same indices on an empty stomach (p=0.026). In abdominal somatotype we also found considerably higher CC content after food intake in comparison with the other somatotypes: chest (р=0.021), muscle (р=0.022) and inexplicit (р=0.029). Also, in abdominal somatotype, we revealed the highest absolute indices of fatty tissue content in body composition as compared to other somatotypes: chest (р=0.00000002), muscle (р=0.0002), inexplicit (р=0.000007). Considering CC level before and after food intake, we didn't mark any statistically relevant difference between the youngsters with different body mass indices (BMI). This finding could be caused by the following peculiarity of the BMI evaluation: on the one hand, the growth/weight ratio was calculated, on the other hand, body fatty tissue pronouncement wasn't. Besides, it is fatty tissue, which makes one of the most massive target tissues for CC, and therefore it greatly influences and regulates adipocyte functions. The research allows making the conclusion on the role of the expressiveness of body fatty tissue content as considerable factor, which influences CC content after food loads.

Role of adipocytokines in the integrated assessment of nutritional status of patients with a combination of hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


The aim of the study was to identify early markers of diagnosis and efficacy of treatment of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) in combination with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) basing on the study of adipocytokine and nutritional status. A comprehensive clinical and functional examination of 187 patients has been carried out, including 27 patients without AH and COPD that formed the control group, 53 patients with hypertension, 51 patients with COPD and 56 patients with hypertension combined with COPD. Examination of all patients included general clinical methods, evaluation of the indicators of respiratory function, daily monitoring of blood pressure. The level of adipokines in the blood was determined by ELISA; cytokine status indicators in blood serum - by electrochemiluminescent method; indicators of lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism - on the analyzer; evaluation of body composition by bioimpedance method. In the group of persons suffering from AH in combination with COPD, a significant prevalence of patients with a hemodynamic variant of non-dippers (48.2%) was found, a decrease in the indicators of external respiration function was revealed (the volume of forced expiration in the first second was statistically significantly 1.5 fold lower than the index of patients from the control group, the Tiffno index was 1.3 fold lower, p<0.05). When anthropometric study in the comorbid group of hypertension and COPD determined a significant increase in waist circumference index and waist circumference/ hips circumference (p<0.05), increase in body fat mass, decrease of body lean and active cellular mass in comparison with the control group, the content of extracellular fluid was significantly higher than rates in the control group. A decrease in the value of the phase angle was also noted. The signs of protein deficiency, atherogenic dyslipidemia, insulin resistance were revealed. In patients with comorbid flow, the highest adipokine (increase in the concentration of leptin and resistin on the background of a decrease in the level of adiponectin and leptin-binding receptor) and cytokine (increase in the concentration of mediators of inflammation) activities of adipose tissue were revealed.

Breast milk proteins as a focus for the improvement of recipes for infant adapted milk formulae


After a long evolutionary development starting at the appearance of the first mammals about 200 million years ago, breast milk (BM) was formed into a unique functional nutrition system with an individual composition that promotes normal growth and development of the newborn, and determines the prospects for health throughout life. The review describes the properties and functions of BM in order to objectify the physiological effects of breastfeeding and justify the composition of formulae for artificial feeding (AF). It discusses modern ideas about the protein composition of BM and its significance for the growth and development of the infant, the problems of adapting the protein component of AF formulae, and the prospects for their optimization on the basis of modern production technologies. The conclusion is that BM is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore extensive research, including on the main protein components and their interrelationships, is needed to fully understand and scientifically substantiate approaches to its adaptation.

Hygiene of nutrition

Dietary intake analysis of Russian children 3-19 years old

The objectives of this study was to analyze energy and nutrient intakes in Russian children 3-19 years old, based on the National Survey conducted by Rosstat among 45 thousand households in all regions of Russia in 2013. Dietary intake assessment was investigated using method of 24-hour recall. The analysed sample consisted of 34637 records. Sampling distribution of children by place of residence (urban, rural) and by Federal Districts has a representative character. The values of the mean daily energy and nutrients consumption were compared to Russia recommendations (based on physiological needs), or compared to WHO recommendations (for added sugars and salt). It has been shown that values of energy consumption in children are similar to the Russia recommendations for the corresponding age and gender, although a bit lower standards - which is typical for data got by 24-hour food recall. It reveals clearly the association of energy consumption with the age and sex in groups of children over 11 years. Nutrient intakes in the most cases were slightly lower Russia recommendations and varied depending on gender and age, similar to the change in the energy consumption level. The findings showed that the major issues in children aged 3-19 years are an excessive consumption of the total fat, saturated fatty acids, added sugar and salt in combination with calcium and iron deficiency. Protein and fat intakes in percentage of the total calories intake of children of all ages are directly associated with the family income, while total carbohydrates and added sugars intake reduces by increasing the income. Results of the analysis of macronutrients consumption indicate significant effects of socio-economic factors on child nutrition, which confirms the data obtained in the early 1990s.

Subacute oral toxicity in vivo of multi-walled carbon nanotubes


Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are regarded as environmental pollutants with increased risk. Recently MWCNTs have attracted attention as a promising component of packaging materials for food products, as carriers for agricultural plant growth stimu­lants, agrochemicals components and advanced pesticides, which creates the possibility of their exposure through the gastrointestinal tract. Objective of the research is assess­ment of sub-acute oral toxicity to rats of MWCNTs in an experiment lasting 100 days. MWCNTs preparation «Taunit-M®» was preliminary characterized by electron micros­copy and Raman light scattering. Nanomaterial was administered to animals as sonicated dispersion in water with 1% by weight of nonionic surfactant Tween 20. The experiment was performed on 80 growing male Wistar rats with initial body weight (b.w.) 86±2 g. Rats of experimental groups (from 2nd to 5th) received MWCNTs dispersion instead of drinking water, the animals of the 1st control group - a carrier solution (Tween 20). Doses of MWCNTs consumed were, respectively, in groups 1-5: 0; 0.01; 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg b.w. Hematological and biochemical indices of blood were determined together with the activity of glutathione peroxidase of erythrocytes, the content of non-protein thiols in the liver, excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G) and content of the main and transient components of gastrointestinal microbiocenosis in the cecum contents. Apoptosis of hepatocytes was studied by flow cytometry. As a result MWCNTs led to increase of blood glucose and creatinine in rats in group 2, a significant decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes by increasing the number of lymphocytes, decreased platelet volume, the most pronounced also in group 2, receiving the lowest dose of MWCNTs. There were no signs of oxidative DNA damage identified. At the lowest dose MWCNTs caused a significant decrease in the number of bifidobacteria, increase -citrate-assimilating Enterobacteriaceae, hemolytic aerobic microorganisms and yeast. These changes in the microbiota should be considered as adverse, apparently leading to disturbances in the immune function.

Alteration of rat adrenal cortex after low-dose exposure to endocrine disrupting chemical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane since the first day of postnatal development

The purpose of the present study was to examine morphological and functional alterations in adrenal cortex of rats exposed to low doses of DDT since the first day of postnatal development till puberty. Daily consumption of DDT was 3.71±0.15 Mg/kg bw. This level of exposure corresponds with human daily intake of DDT with food products according to maximum permissive levels of food contamination. Production of steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex was evaluated by quantification of aldosterone, corticosterone, estradiol, and estrone serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Organometry and light microscopy of the adrenal glands were performed. After six weeks of exposure serum concentration of aldosterone was elevated by 50% in average, estradiol - by 25%, estrone - by 29%, but serum level of corticosterone was decreased by 53% compared to the control values. The adrenal glands had decreased weight and reduced cortex width from 897.75±23.31 to 776.25±19.91 Mm mainly due to narrowing of reticularis zona by 11.35%. Histological examination also found proportional increase of cell number in mm2 of reticularis zona and therefore found no differences in total endocrine cell count in reticularis zona between the control (14 085.94±704.30) and DDT exposed rats (13 678.20±410.34). Light microscopy revealed hemorrhages between glomerulosa zona and fasciculata zona as well as fasciculate zona and reticularis zona, foci of discomplexity in fasciculate zona, dystrophy and decreased size of fasculata cells. The data obtained demonstrated that low-dose exposure to DDT during postnatal development led to obvious changes in morphology and function of rat adrenal gland. Low doses of DDT disrupt steroid hormone production by all layers of adrenal cortex in puberty. The results show that very low-dose exposure to DDT needs further investigations, and safety of maximum permissible levels of DDT and other endocrine disrupting chemicals in food products should be reassessed.

The study of the association between rs2228570 polymorphism of VDR gene and vitamin D blood serum concentration in the inhabitants of the Russian Arctic

Genetic factor plays a significant role in nutrient deficiency development, including vitamins, by present time the association between several genetic polymorphisms and vitamin deficiency in the different regions of the world has been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between VDR Fokl polymorphism and vitamin D sufficiency in the population of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District of the Russian Federation. The group of participants included 172 people, among them 133 women and 39 men aged 20 to 75 years old. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood and genotyped for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of Fokl T/C: (rs2228570) using allele-specific amplification, results were detected in real time using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphic sites. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured by ELISA. The decreased level of 25(OH)D in blood serum (<20 ng/ml) occurred in 38.2% of the population surveyed, and 25(OH)D blood level in the alien population of the region was significantly lower than that in the indigenous population. Genetic peculiarities of the inhabitants of the Arctic zone were identified by comparison with the inhabitants of the European part of the Russian Federation. Allele C frequency of VDR rs2228570 polymorphism in the alien population was 71.1%, higher than in indigenous population (50.0%) while in the inhabitants of the European part of Russia it was 57.8%. Vitamin D blood level was statistically significantly lower in all homozygous C allele carriers than in genotype TT carriers, and vitamin D deficit frequency was 2.3 fold higher (48.4 vs. 21.1%, p<0.05). In the group of indigenous people of this region vitamin D levels in carriers of CC and CT genotype were also significantly lower than that of TT genotype carriers. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency in homozygous carriers of the allele C (45.5%) was 5.5 fold higher than among TT genotype carriers (p<0.01), and 1.6 fold higher than that in CT genotype carriers (p>0.05). Thus, the association between C allele presence of rs2228570 polymorphism of VDR gene and a deficiency of vitamin D (reduced levels of 25 (OH)D in blood serum) has been revealed.

Characteristics of Voronezh schoolchildren physical development and nutrition behavior


Physical development and nutrition behavior of schoolchildren in Voronezh depending on their age were studied. Research included 484 children aged 8–17: 236 (48.8%) girls and 248 (51.2%) boys. The children were divided into 3 groups: aged 8–10 (174 children), 11–14 (196 children) and 15–18 (114 children). The children were interviewed, their height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Questionnaire was focused on milk intake and hot meals received at school, frequency of meals per day and frequency of breakfast. Z-score values for height and weight for certain age (HAZ & WAZ) and BMI (BAZ) were calculated using WHO ANTHRO Plus program. HAZ values from -2 to +2 and BAZ from -1 to +1 were ranked as age norms. BAZ from -1 to -2 were considered slight malnutrition, BAZ less -2 – malnutrition, BAZ from +1 to +2 as overweight, BAZ equal and over +2 as obesity. Average Z-score height, weight and BMI values were higher than WHO standards, maximal differences in boys aged 8–10, minimal in teenagers aged 15–18 (p=0.042). Z-score height values in girls aged 8–10 were 0.43±1.02, in boys – 0.74±0.99 (р=0.000), in girls aged 11–14 – 0.29±0.99 and boys 0.39±1.06, aged 15–18 – 0.13±0.68 and 0.13±1.00 respectively. Children aged 8–10 had higher height and weight, but also higher BMI (0.36±1.13 in girls and 0.96±1.44 in boys, р=0.000). Z-score BMI in schoolchildren aged 11–14 was 0.12±1.27 in girls and 0.19±1.37 in boys, aged 15–18 – 0.25±1.17 and 0.09±1.07 respectively. Overweight frequency in children aged 8–10 was 23.0% (in boys – 26.1%), obesity – 15.5% (in boys 21.6%). Growing older, overweight and obesity frequency decreased (till 12.3 and 4.4% at age 15–18), whereas malnutrition increased (from 9.8 at age 8–10 till 18.9 at age 11–14 and 17.5% at age 15–18). Half of the schoolchildren had 4–5 meals per day (75.3% at age 8–10), and 19.6% – 2 meals per day (37.2% at age 11–14). Teenagers aged 15–18 had 3 meals per day in 61.4% cases, however frequency of their breakfasts decreased (82.5 compared to 91.4% in children aged 8–10). 68.9% of children aged 8–10 had regular meals at school canteens compared to 29.8% of teenagers. Less than 50% of children (41.9%) drank milk at school regularly. Preventive measures should be taken for children aged 8–10, especially boys, to prevent overweight and obesity increase, and girls aged 11–14 and 15–18 should be paid special attention to prevent malnutrition.

Investigation of sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in students of Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky

There has been a growing trend globally in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) amongst children. Consumption of SSBs, particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be one of the key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. We searched consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in 360 students of the 1st (n=210) and the 6th (n=150) courses of Krasnoyarsk State Medical University (247 girls and 113 boys), using questionnaires. About 27.7±2.4% of students regularly (daily or at least 2-3 times a week) consumed sugar-sweetened beverages, despite the fact that were well informed about the diseases associated with their consumption. The most popular among the respondents was a bottle of 0.5 liter, it was preferred by 44.1±2.6% of students. Among the students of 6th year there were more respondents who didn't consume (22.6±2.9) and buy (30.6±3.8%) sweet carbonated drinks, compared to the 1st-year students (14.3±2.4 and 19±3.2%, respectively). Most popular was SSBs intake among boys, 9.7±2.7% of them used it every day and 23±4.0% - 2-3 times per week, compared with 3.2±1.1 and 12.1±2.1% of girls, respectively. Boys were also more likely (42.4±4.6%) to purchase bottles of 1 liter or more. More rigorously conducted, quality randomized clinical trials in this area are required to aid the design of effective interventions that can be implemented by health professionals as one of the elements of the prevention of childhood and adolescent obesity.
Nutrition of sportsmеn

The feasibility of specialized products for nutrition of sportsmen in the preparatory period of the sports cycle

The nutrition factor is one of the most important in the achievement of high sport results and in maintaining of athlete health along with the methodological and psychological aspects of training. Improving the methods of training in different sports leads to a significant increase in the level of energy expenditure. In order to provide athletes with a large amount of energy, it is advisable to use specialized products with increased nutritive and biological value. Specialists should pay special attention to the scientific justification of composition of special food products (SPP) with consideration of age and gender of athlete, type of sport, the stages of sports activities, training regimes, the qualifications of the athlete and individual level of metabolism. An analytical review of literature on the appropriateness of the application of SPP for athlete nutrition in the preparatory period was conducted to justify the need for further research in this field.

Antioxidant status evaluation in sportsmen using in their ration natural concentrated food products made by cryogenic technology


The authors evaluated the level of products of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic compo­nent of antioxidant defense in 30 sportsmen (19-22 years) going in for boat racing at pre-competition period, after competition and during one month of subsequent planned training. At the same time, the authors assessed some indices of vitamin (А, Е, В1, В2) and mineral status of human organism (zinc, copper, iron). As the criteria of antioxidant defense status, catalase activity and ceruloplasmin level were detected in blood serum, content of products of lipid peroxidation was evaluated according to levels of malon dialdehyde and nitric oxide metabolites. To assess influence of food ration upon antioxidant defense in sportsmen, natural concentrated food products made by cryogenic technol­ogy were administrated to persons of the main group (n=15). The food products were administrated as powder in second course during organized diner. The food products were not given to persons in control group (n=15). First food product consisted of vegetable components and animal protein: cryopowders of rabbit meat, celery, onion, pumpkin, hips. Second food product consisted of cryopowders of red grape, topinambour, beet root and verdure of parsley. Both food products were given 10 grams during 15 days. Results showed before study 40% of sportsmen had high level of products of lipid peroxidation. It probably provided evidence about inadequacy of physical loads. These changes were detected against the background decreased content of vitamins А (10.0% persons), Е (40.0% persons), В2 (43.3% persons), В1 (100.0% persons), copper (30.0% persons) and iron (53.3 % persons). The preparation for sportive competitions led to augmentation of products of lipid peroxidation in control group. In persons of main group using the food products during pre-competition period, the increase of micronutrient saturation was noted; it probably positively influenced upon metabolic processes in human organism and prevented the augmentation of production of malon dialdehyde and nitric metabolites. The enzymatic component activity in control group did not change and was in the range of standard. Since the level of lipid peroxidation metabolites in blood serum in main group significantly decreased at the end of observation, but enzymatic component activity remained high (it provided evidence of higher antioxidant defense), the authors supposed aftereffect due to using in ration food products with elevated content of biologically active substances. Probably, sportsmen of main group more sufficiently endured planned physi­cal loads. Obtained results provided evidence about availability of using food products made by cryogenic technology in ration of sportsmen of different kind of sport.

Micronutrients in nutrition

Micronutrient status of population of the Russian Federation and possibility of its correction. State of the problem

Vitamin status of the working population (about 950 subjects) from Moscow region, Samara, Nizhny Novgorod, Arkhangelsk, Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug has been evaluated in 2015-2016. The lack of vitamin D assessed by means of blood serum level determination was detected in 57.5% of the adults, B vitamins - in 12.6-34.5%, vitamins A and E - in 5.3-10.8%, carotene - in 67.3%. Multivitamin insufficiency (the lack of 3 or more vitamins) was found in 22-38% of adults. Micronutrient fortification of foods of mass consumption is a promising way to improve vitamin status of the population. The needs for vitamins in medical, food industry and agriculture are satisfied only by imports. Calculation of the quantity of imported vitamins substances, carried out on the basis of databases of the Federal Customs Service of Russia, showed that import volume of vitamins increased and amounted to 9920 tons (125 980 000 dollars) in 2016. The estimated total demand of food industry in vitamins (substances) for the production of vitamin-mineral supplements (at the rate of 1-month course per person per year), the inclusion of vitamin and mineral supplements in health nutrition in hospitals and the production of fortified foodstuffs (at the rate of 24 kg of flour per year per one person and milk - 50 kg/year per person) was about 2.5 thousand tons per year. The absence of vitamin synthesis in the Russian Federation is a problem for increasing of nutritive value and quality of food products. The urgent need to revive domestic production (synthesis) of vitamin substances has appeared. The use of iodized salt instead of non-iodized salt in bread and bakery production automatically converted it into enriched foods, which could improve the iodine sufficiency of the population.
Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Apple juice nutritional profile

Fruits and vegetables are an important component of proper nutrition, but its consumption in Russia is below the recommended levels, and fruit and vegetable juices can partially fill the lack of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Russian Union of Juice Producers (RSPS) has been accumulating data on nutritive and biologically active substances of juices during five years to assess the contribution of juices to the diet. RSPS has organized research in accredited laboratories of more than 500 samples of reconstituted and direct juices available on the shelves of Russian stores since 2010 with the aim to specify and supplement the data listed in the various reference books. Analysis of literature data on the content of nutritive and biologically active substances is performed in the article together with the results of studies of various samples of apple juice of domestic industrial production. The nutrient profile of apple juice is given on this basis and contains 30 nutritive and biologically active substances. The most significant from the point of view of providing human body with micronutrients and minor biologically active substances for apple juice of industrial production are Potassium, Chromium and hydroxycinnamic (mostly chlorogenic) acids. A glass of apple juice (250 ml) contains, on average, about 8% of the daily requirement for potassium, 12.5% for chromium and about 150% of adequate daily intake of hydroxycinnamic acids. Additionally apple juices (except clarified ones) contain pectins - in a glass (250 ml) of juice on average there is 15% of daily requirement in pectins, and the total content of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in apple juices with pulp on averages make 5% of daily human requirement in a dietary fiber.
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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Medicine today

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