1 . 2018

Prebiotics as functional food ingredients: terminology, choice and comparative evaluation criteria, classification

The purpose of this review is to analyze current concepts of prebiotics as one of the most promising groups of functional food ingredients, identify problems and trends in the investigations in this area. The background for the emergence and development stages of the concept of «prebiotics» as non-digestible food substances that selectively stimulate the growth and (or) the biological activity of one or a limited number of representatives of the protective microflora of the human intestine, contributing to the maintenance of its normal structure and biological activity is shown. The criteria for selecting prebiotics and the formula for prebiotic index determining are presented. Methods for determining the bifidogenic properties of functional foods enriched with probiotic microorganisms or prebiotic substances are described. Prebiotics are classified according to several factors: nature and structure, origin and sources of raw materials, the method of production, the field of application. It is shown that most researchers consider prebiotics only as substances of carbohydrate nature, primarily indigestible oligosaccharides. A brief description of the most studied prebiotics (fructans, galactans and lactulose) is given. The information on technological properties of oligosaccharide-prebiotics is generalized. It is shown that prebiotics belong to the fast growing segments in the world market of functional ingredients, however their production and use in Russia is still at the initial stage of development. The main tasks in the field of prebiotics researches are defined: clarifying the definition, improving the methods for analyzing their chemical composition, study of the effectiveness and mechanisms of influence on the intestinal microbiota, especially on the interaction in the «macroorganism-microbiota» system using modern molecular genetic methods; scientific substantiation of the possibility of prebiotics using for the prevention and treatment of alimentary-dependent diseases. For the practical implementation of these tasks, it is necessary to develop new cost-effective methods for the production of prebiotics and synbiotics, as well as food technology with their use.

Characteristics of free fatty acid metabolism in pathogenesis of obesity: current view

Obesity is a chronic disease that turns up one of the main healthcare problems in the majority of industrialized countries. In modern literature, free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism disturbances are thought to play one of the key roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. This review accumulates and summarizes basic facts on FFA normal metabolism and currently known concepts explaining the relation between FFA metabolism disturbances and pathogenesis of obesity and associated complications. Ectopic fat recruitment (i.e., in non-adipose tissues) appears to be a key feature of metabolic disturbances in obesity. It was the finding, that has led to the believe that an imbalance in fatty acid trafficking away from adipose tissue towards non-adipose tissues is a primary cause for the development of metabolic alterations in obese subjects. Recently FFA trafficking within non-adipose tissues cells (particularly towards storage in the form of triglycerides and oxidation) has considerably more important significance in the pathogenesis of obesity. After that FFA has established to be important signaling molecules, interacting with specific receptors (that are localized in different tissues) and by this way influence on body metabolism. Failure of these influences also appears to be important factor of obesity pathogenesis. Thus, FFA metabolism play an important role in obesity pathogenesis. This influence is caused by both FFA trafficking and oxidation disturbances in adipose and non-adipose tissues and direct interaction of FFA with specific receptors in different tissues.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

The evaluation of the lipid peroxidation system and antioxidant defense in adolescent boys with exogenously constitutive obesity with using the coefficient of oxidative stress

Child and adolescent obesity deserves special attention, since, beginning in adolescence, it progresses and leads to the development of complications already in the adult state. One of the leading mechanisms of the pathogenesis of obesity is the activation of oxidative stress reactions, with insufficient activity of antioxidant factors. There is an opinion that integrated indicators are more informative when assessing antioxidant status disorders compared to individual indicators. The state of lipid peroxidation processes was assessed in 42 adolescent boys, comparable in age (13-17 years old), 19 of them were diagnosed with exogenous-constitutional obesity. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were used. In adolescent boys with obesity, there was a decrease in the concentration of primary products of LPO - diene conjugates (1.39 fold, p=0.007), with an increase in the level of secondary ketodienes and conjugated trienes (1.65 fold, p=0.011). In the antioxidant defense system, the differences in this group included reduced levels of α-tocopherol (1.42 fold, p=0.016), retinol (1.51 fold, p=0.003) and superoxide dismutase activity (1.19 fold, p<0.001), in the absence of significant changes in the blood total antioxidant activity and components of glutathione status in adolescent boys with obesity in comparison with control. The use of the total oxidative stress factor in the group of obese patients showed a high intensity of development of oxidative reactions, which confirms the results of the development of antioxidant insufficiency in this group of patients.

Assesment of the nutrition and antioxidant activity of biological liquids in students


Studying of quality of nutrition of students is of great importance as it is one of the major factors defining the state of health, especially during the periods of adaptation to the changing conditions of the environment and stressful situations. Stability or, on the contrary, predisposition to stressor violations is defined by numerous factors including the nutritive status of an organism. The purpose of the research was the analysis of the actual diet of the studying youth during educational process and assessment antioxidant activity of biological liquids of an organism. 74 students shared in a research: 30 young men and 44 girls. For assessment of the actual nutrition a method of the food diary within 5 days, excepting days off and holidays, has been used. It has been established that frequency of a meal at most of students was 3-4 times a day. Most of students consumed the first dishes1-2 times a week (56.7% of young men and 63.6% of girls), at the same time these dishes were absent in a diet at 13.6% of girls. The second dishes were present in the diet of all students. In both groups the average index of body weight was in limits of norm (18.5-25.0 kg/m2). At the same time body weight was reduced at 6.7% of young men and 11.4% of girls; excess body weight was revealed at 20.0% of young men and 6.8% of girls. 73.3% of young men and 81.8% of girls had normal body weight. In young men the calorie content of the diet, the protein and fat content slightly differed from the norm. At the same time, a carbohydrate imbalance was observed - an increase in the proportion of simple carbohydrates (sugars) (p0.05) and a decrease in the content of starch and dietary fiber (p0.05). In girls, protein intake was below the normal level and a similar carbohydrate imbalance was noted (p0.05). The content of vitamins in the diet of both boys and girls was reduced. Youngsters had a deficiency of β-carotene and vitamin C, in girls it was aggravated with vitamins B1 and B2 (p^0.05). In the diet of the surveyed, a deficiency of such minerals as calcium and magnesium was noted; in girls - potassium, phosphorus and iron in addition (p0.05). Excessive element in the diet was sodium. In the diet of young men the content of phosphorus and iron exceeded the norm. Thus, the analysis of the diet of students indicated a lack and imbalance in the content of both macro- and micronutrients, which was most pronounced in girls. The total antioxidant activity of biological liquids of an organism - blood serum, urine and saliva (determined by amperometric method using a system for liquid chromatography) decreased among: urine, blood serum, saliva. Blood serum of young men possessed greater antioxidant activity than in girls; while in urine the dependence was reversed. Thus, in order to increase the antioxidant status of the organism during periods of adaptation and stress, a qualitative and quantitative balance of the diet and increased consumption of antioxidants is necessary.

The evaluation of biological value and immunochemical characteristics of the coagulated chicken egg white


The aim of the study was to investigate in vivo the biological value of the coagulated chicken egg white on growing rats and a comparative immunochemical evaluation in vitro of its antigenic power. The experiment was carried out on 50 growing Wistar male rats with a body weight of 80±5 g. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=16): control group G1 and two experimental groups G2 and G3. The animals of the control group (G1) received a basic isocaloric and isonitrogenous (20% protein of casein by caloric content) semi-synthetic diet. The animals of the experimental groups G2 and G3 received the same semi-synthetic diet in which casein was replaced by chicken egg white (CEW) and coagulated CEW, respectively. The average food intake of group G3 animals, who received the CEW coagulate, was significantly lower (13.7±0.6 g per day, p<0.05) in comparison with the control group G1 (18.4±0.6 g) and the experimental group G2 (19.2±0.5 g). Moreover, body weight gain of animals treated with coagulated CEW didn't differ significantly from the control G1 animals. Already on the 8th day of the experiment, the body weight gain of G2 animals, who consumed native CEW, was significantly higher in comparison with both other groups. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) for animals of the G3 group was significantly higher (1.96±0.04) than the values for the animals of the control group G1 receiving casein (1.49±0.05, p<0.01), and for the animals of the experimental group G2 receiving CEW (1.60±0.02, p<0.05). The results of immune-enzymatic testing of the initial antigenic power of ovalbumin in native CEW indicated that its content was 33.0% relative to the standard ovalbumin value, antigenic power of which was assumed to be 100%. The developed process of coagulation contributed to a decrease in antigenic power to 2.17%. The obtained data indicate a high biological value and low antigenic power of the coagulated CEW, which makes it prospective for the usage in the composition of food products of mass demand and specialized food products.

Sex and line differences in biochemical indices and fat soluble vitamins sufficiency in rats on in vivo model of metabolic syndrome

Consumption of diets that are inadequate in energy value to the actual energy expenditure can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), which has consequences such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatosis, atherosclerosis, gout, allergic diseases. Experimental models of MS are needed to develop new approaches to its dietary and drug correction. The aim of the work was a comparative analysis of functional, biochemical and vitamin markers characterizing the effect of a diet with a high content of fructose (F) on males and females of various rat lines and the selection on this basis of an optimal in vivo MS model. Male and female rats of the outbred Wistar line (W) and the inbred Dark Agouti line (DA) were used in the work number of 16 individuals of each sex and line. The animals of the 1st (control) groups of each sex and line received a balanced semi-synthetic diet according to AIN93, and the animals of the 2nd (experimental) groups - the same diet and 30% solution of F instead of water in the regime of free access. Within 121 days, energy value of diets consumed, the increase in body weight and blood pressure were determined; relative mass of internal organs, biochemical parameters of blood plasma, content of fat-soluble vitamins A and E in blood plasma and liver were determined at withdrawal of animals from experiment. It was shown that, in spite of the increased energy value of the diet in the experimental groups throughout experiment, DA males and females practically did not respond to this by an increase in body weight gain, in contrast to W rats (in particular, females). Consumption of diets with F led to an increase in glucose level irrespective of gender and line, whereas triglyceride level (TG) significantly increased only in the case of W female. Addition of F caused in DA rats of both sexes an increase in the mass of the kidneys, as well as more pronounced, in comparison with W rats manifestation of markers of toxic effects on the liver (increases alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase activity, elevated urea and bilirubin level in blood plasma). In rats of both lines intake of F suppressed the accumulation of retinol palmitate in the liver in terms of its specific content. The total content of α-tocopherol in liver was significantly higher in W compared with DA. At the same time, α-tocopherol levels in blood plasma correlated with TG, and the α-tocopherol/TG ratio significantly decreased in female W receiving F, which were characterized by hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect of F on W males and, in particular, females, basically corresponded to the classical picture of MS with body weight increasing, elevated blood pressure, glycemia and TG increase, whereas the toxic effect of F prevailed in DA liver and, possibly, kidneys without development of marked dyslipidemia and obesity.
Hygiene of nutrition

Research of the cadmium intoxication effect on the model of vitamin-mineral deficiency in rats


The article presents the results of the study aimed at confirmation of the effectiveness of the rats' adaptive potential reduction under conditions of cadmium salt toxic effects. The 65-days experiment was conducted in male and female Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 6 groups of 3 control and 3 experimental, 30 males and females in each. In total 360 rats were used in the experiment (180 females and 180 males). Rats of the 1st control group received a diet with optimal (75% of the standard semisyntethic diet content) dosage of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and mineral substances, Fe3+ and Mg2+, the rats of the 2nd and the 3rd control group - diets with marginal (30% for males and 28% for females) and submarginal (19% for males and 18% for females) doses of essential micronutrients. Animals of the 1-3th experimental groups received Cd2+ on the background of optimal, marginal and submarginal providing of essential micronutrients. The hematological, biochemical and morphological parameters and the antioxidant status of rats have been studied. The obtained results allowed to identify patterns of cadmium toxic effect strengthen on the background of essential nutrients reducing (in the row from optimal to submarginal). These changes showed erythrocyte and platelet blood profiles, and a set of indicators of the antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation of blood and liver. Thus, the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes - glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in rats of the 1st experimental group were on average by 23% higher than in animals of the 1st control group, the rats of the 2nd and the 3rd experimental groups by 62 and 67% higher, respectively. The content of lipid peroxidation products in blood and liver of male and female rats showed a similar trend: an increase by 5% in the 1st experimental group by 9 and 25% in the 2nd and 3rd experimental groups respectively. Thus, the modification of the diets' vitamin-mineral composition may be usedas a model of adaptive potential reduction in rats in the toxicological research of objects with unknown toxicity, in particular novel food products.

Characteristics of the diet and nutritional status of workers at various industrial enterprises of the Sverdlovsk Region


Alteration of food patterns leads to changes in nutritional status, thus contributing to the development of non-communicable diseases accounting for over a half of all causes of death of the population of our country. Poor working conditions and occupational hazards play an important role in inducing metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of joint studies conducted by two Healthy Nutrition Centers located in the cities of Yekaterinburg and Moscow was to assess the diet and nutritional status of workers at two industrial enterprises of the Sverdlovsk Region. The total of 347 unrefined copper production workers (Plant 1) and 267 iron ore miners (Plant 2) were included in the study (the average age was 45.7±0.4 and 50.4±0.6 years, respectively). The study design envisaged a study of actual nutrition by a frequency method, anthropometric indices, total body composition by bio-impedancemetry, and nutritional status biomarkers using biochemical blood indices. The workers' diet was characterized by a high energy value (more than 2,500 kcal/day) with an excess of total and saturated fats (40.7-41.0 and 15.2-15.3% by the calorie content) as well as mono- and disaccharides (19.0-21.0% by the calorie content). Vitamins C and A consumption of the iron ore miners was 78% (p<0.01) and 27% (p<0.05) lower than that of the unrefined copper production workers, respectively. High (>1.0) waist to hip ratios were estimated in 28.5% of the workers. Obesity (BMI>25.0 kg/m2) was established in 36-42% of our subjects and the fat mass excess - in 81% of them. High serum concentrations of low-density lipoproteins were measured in 28 and 35% of the workers of both plants, respectively. The metabolic syndrome was identified in 27.0% of Plant 1 workers and in 44.2% of Plant 2 miners, whereas cardiovascular diseases were diagnosed in 25.9 and 56.5% of the workers, respectively. The effect of genetic factors (rs993609 polymorphism of FTO gene and Trp64Arg polymorphism in ADRB3 gene) on the development of obesity and metabolic disorders was demonstrated.

Features of nutrition of elderly patients with removable dental orthopedic constructions

Research objective: studying of features of nutrition in elderly patients with removable stomatologic orthopedic constructions. 1388 patients aged from 60 up to 75 years which addressed in a city dental out-patient department were examined. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 - the persons having only fixed stomatologic orthopedic constructions (n=419); group 2 - the persons having at least one partially removable stomatologic orthopedic construction and not havingfull-removable orthopedic constructions (n=512); group 3 - the persons having at least one full-removable stomatologic orthopedic construction (n=457). Patients were interviewed about nutrition features (frequency of consumption). Anthropometric researches were conducted. There were 2.2 and 1.3 fold more persons in group 3 with a concomitant increase in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio compared to groups 1 and 2 (p=0.0013). Persons from group 3 consumed meat significantly less often than patients in groups 1 and 2. A similar trend was observed for meat products, vegetables and fruits (p<0.05). Compared to patients in groups 1 and 2, patients from group 3 more often consumed cereals, potatoes, rice, pasta, as well as sauces, mayonnaises, margarines. All examined elderly patients rarely consumed fish and seafood (76.0-89.9% persons consumed once a month and less often).
Diet treatment

Evaluation of nutrition, body composition and features of dietetic counseling for patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea


The assessment of nutrition status, anthropometry, eating disorders, fat tissue and leptin levels in 48 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) was conducted. The study of nutrition status revealed a discrepancy between the caloric intake and energy expenditure in 50% of patients, inadequate daily intake of carbohydrates in 91.7%, increased protein intake in 70.8% of patients. The recommended ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates in patients of the study group was not observed (1:1:0.3). It was noted that the deficit of adipose tissue and the decrease in serum leptin concentration were observed not only in patients with low body mass index), but also in 70% of women with normal values. Using the questionnaire Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2) revealed that 54.2% of patients had drive for thinness and 22.9% of patients had body dissatisfaction. The results indicate the need for an integrated approach to the management of patients with FHA, which provides consultation of a gynecologist, psychotherapist and nutritionist.

Antimutagenic and antioxidant features of confectionery products containing the powder from the leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides L.

The aim of the work was to determine the possibility of using the powder from the leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides L. for enriching flour confectionery and to evaluate the antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of the product. The experiment was carried out on 24 white Wistar rats with initial body weight (b.w.) 180-200 g. The animals of the experimental group (n=8) received confection containing sea buckthorn powder at a rate of 20 mg per 100 g b.w. for 14 days on the background of a standard vivarium diet. The animals of the control and intact groups received confection containing no bioactive supplement at the same dose. Antimutagenic and antioxidant effects were estimated in a day after a single injection of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. The number of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of white rats was counted and the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the level of reduced glutathione and the concentration of TBA-active products in blood were evaluated. The intake of the confectionery containing the powdered H. rhamnoides leaves resulted in the 45% decrease of the number of damaged cells, 50% decrease of the proportion of cells with multiple chromosome breaks and 52% decrease of the number of achromatic gaps as compared to animals of the control group (n=8). The cake intake increased the activity of catalase (by 52%) and SOD (by 33%) and glutathione content (by 26%) in blood.
Nutrition of sportsmеn

The use of a specialized food product based on fermented milk whey to enhance the adaptive potential of athletes (skiers-riders)


Specialized sports nutrition is one of the most important factors in the extension of the functional potential of athletes, providing adaptive resistance to physical stress, which determines the high physical performance and prolongs athletic longevity of the athletes. The study involved 30 skiers-racers (the average age of 19.5±1.8 years). 12 skiers of the main group within 21 days consumed a specialized food product, obtained on the basis of fermented milk whey containing amino acids, several vitamins, minerals and trace elements, live culture of lactic acid bacteria: L. lactis, L. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus (1.2x108 CFU/cm3). The control group consisted of 18 skiers, those taking the placebo (food starch of the same consistency). After a course of product intake, blood level of hemoglobin increased by 6%, of leukocytes - by 10% due to an increase in the number of granulocytes by 32%, and segmented neutrophils by 16% (p<0.05), there was a tendency to increase the number of red blood cells by 7% with a significant decrease in lymphocyte count by 19%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in blood of the skiers from the comparison group increased by 41% (p<0.05), while in the athletes of the main group it decreased by 16% (p>0.05). After product intake it has been established by the method of laser Doppler flowmetry that there was a tendency to increase blood perfusion by 15%, a statistically reliable increase in the flux by 53%, which is based on the improvement of the internal mechanisms of microcirculation regulation. According to the mathematical analysis of cardiac rhythm, centralization of regulation decreased while the activity of an autonomous mechanism for controlling the work of the heart increased. The revealed functional changes ensured an increase of absolute (by 31%, p<0.05) and relative (by 33%, p<0.05) physical performance and aerobic endurance of skiers, contributed to the improvement of short-term memory. The conclusion is made about the expediency of the intake of the specialized food product to enhance the adaptive capacity of athletes under the influence of systematic physical loads.

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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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