To the 90th anniversary of the Institute of Nutrition: a look through the years
Half of our health depends on the food quality. Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety has been dealing with this problem for 90 years. Core issues are medical enzymology, searching new food sources (protein problem), nutritional epidemiology, nutrition for professional athletes and cosmonauts, seeking new biologically active compounds, food toxicology and safety assessment of nanotechnologies, a study of the metabolism and mechanism of action of food contaminants, creation of a regulatory framework for chemical and microbiological safety, and much more. The infant and baby nutrition and nutrition of older people in recent years has developed rapidly.
Nutriome as the direction of the “main blow”: determination of physiological needs in macro- and micronutrients, minor biologically active substances
One of the essential parts of fundamental research in Nutrition Science is the determination of the physiological requirements of humans for energy and food substances. Research that has been carried out in this area over the past 90 years, consistently develops and improves the norms of physiological requirements for energy and nutrients for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation. In the 50 years of the last century in this research field, determining the values of daily intake for macronutrients (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates), was in the first place. Then the Era of micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, trace elements) was started, and, finally, now there is the Era of minor food biologically active substances. More and more facts are accumulating about their leading role in regulating metabolism. They can be recognized as endogenous regulators, the primary vital components involved in the formation of human health. In recent years, the new definition of Nutriome is introduced into Nutrition Science. It is considered as a set of essential nutritional factors to maintain a dynamic equilibrium between human being and the environment, aimed to ensure viability, the preservation and reproduction of the species, keeping the adaptive capacity, the system of antioxidant defence, apoptosis, metabolism, and immune system function. The Nutriome is a formula for optimal nutrition, which is continually being improved and supplemented. Knowledge of this formula is the key to forming an optimal diet for a person, and, therefore, to save their health. It is evident that at the population level, the Nutriome has its characteristics, its structure for each age period of human life. The need to develop a formula for optimal nutrition and, consequently, updating nutrient-based dietary guidelines is induced by socio-economic and demographic changes in population, changes in anthropometric characteristics of children and adults, increasing prevalence of socially significant non-communicable diseases, developing studies of the significance of particular food substances and establishing the relationship between nutrition and health.
Gut microbiome: from the reference of the norm to pathology
А systemic assessment of the state of the human intestinal microbiome was carried out in relation to its function in the macroorganism, aimed at providing the nutriome, and the factors that determine the adequate nutritional status. A new concept of “reference gut microbiome of a healthy person” was postulated and the requirements to it were formulated: interaction with the host according to the principle of mutualism, provision of immune balance with the macroorganism due to the correct formation of mucosal immunity, implementation of metabolic and regulatory functions without losses for the nutriome. A set of characteristics and biomarkers reflecting the taxonomic composition and population properties of the microbial community, as well as the state of its essential immune and metabolic functions, was proposed as a criterion for its assessment in healthy adults who consume a diet balanced in nutritive and energy value, appropriate for age and energy spending. The influence of alimentary factors on the formation of the human intestinal microbiome in early ontogenesis, the nature of dysbiotic shifts, including those under common non-infectious alimentary-dependent diseases (obesity, food allergy, urolithiasis), in Russians were studied, the ways of their correction and maintenance of the intestinal microbiota in the process of life were substantiated taking into account modern knowledge.
Physiological and biochemical studies as a necessary component of the algorithm for assessing the effectiveness of food minor biologically active substances
Preclinicalphysiological and biochemical studies of the effectiveness of the tested biologically active substances in the conditions of simulated pathology in laboratory animals are an important stage preceding the assessment of the clinical effectiveness of the created specialized foods for therapeutic or preventive nutrition.
The aim of this work is a brief review of the developed algorithm for preclinical assessment of the effectiveness of specialized foods, which includes a set of sequential stages of testing the safety, stability, bioavailability and effectiveness of biologically active substances in experiments on laboratory animals.
Results. The paper presents a brief review of methodological approaches for in vivo preclinical assessment of the effectiveness of minor plant biologically active substances -polyphenols from bilberry fruits and leaves and phytoecdysteroids extracted from spinach. A beneficial effect of bilberry leaves’ polyphenols on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of male Zucker and Wistar rats was shown, which determined the necessity to increase the effectiveness of the developed polyphenolic ingredient by sorption on a food carrier. When evaluating the in vivo effects of polyphenols from blueberries and leaves sorbed on buckwheat flour, a pronounced hypoglycemic effect was found. The experiments aimed to the assessment of the adaptogenic effects of phytoecdysteroids from spinach leaves showed a significant decrease in the content of the main biomarkers of the stress system, which indicates a «smoothing» of the response of the animal organism to a strong stress impact.
Conclusion. The inclusion of minor biologically active substances into the composition of foods for preventive and therapeutic nutrition is the necessary condition to improve their effectiveness. The scientific and practical significance of the preclinical evaluation to a decisive extent depends on the presence of a correctly selected biomodel. Thus, the adequacy of the assessment of the effects of minor biologically active substances as functional food ingredients in the composition of the specialized food products depends on the reproducibility of pathological processes (clinical, biochemical and morphological disorders) characteristic for the studied disease on the selected in vivo model.
The transit of Russian nation nutrition at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries
The assessment of the individual dietary intake of the population acquired critical importance in the Russian Federation when implementing socio-economic reforms in the 1990s. This was due to the difficulties of the transition period from a planned economy to market relations, which was reflected in a decrease in the level of the socio-economic condition of the population.
The purpose of this study was to analyze objective and reliable information about the nature of consumption of nutrients and energy, as well as food products by the adult population of Russia in the period 1994-2018.
Material and methods. The paper analyzes and summarizes the results of sample surveys of household budgets conducted by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) in 1991-2018 and of large-scale epidemiological studies of the actual dietary intake of the population of the Russian Federation, which are presented by the data of the “Russian Longitudnal Monitoring Surveys” (RLMS) in 1994-2012 and large-scale nutrition surveys conducted by Rosstat in all constituent entities of the Russian Federation in 2013 and 2018. All nutrition surveys were carried out according to a unified methodology for collecting, processing and reporting actual data developed at the Federal Research Center of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety. Using a unified methodological basis allows us to build an analysis of the dietary intake of the population for the period from 1994 to 2018.
Results. The objective data on the consumption of energy, nutrients, individual and aggregated groups of food products were analyzed depending on a number of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables that determine the nutrition pattern of the population of the Russian Federation during the period of economic reforms in the 1990s and 2000s. According to budget surveys, over the past years, the structure of the diet in households has changed significantly: the consumption of potatoes decreased by 45% and bakery products by 6%, the consumption offish and fruits almost doubled, the consumption of meat products increased by 60%, of vegetables by 20%. According to epidemiological studies, the fat content increased from 31 to 36.8% of calorie content, the protein content didn't changed significantly, although in recent years there has been a tendency to increase to 12.1% of calorie content. The average per capita consumption of protein and fat by adults, including saturated fat acids were significantly higher in 2005-2018, compared with the 1990s, both in absolute quantities and in per cents of the caloric intake. At the same time, the consumption of total carbohydrates in per cents of the calorie intake and the amount of dietary fiber in the diet decreased. Parallel to fat intake changes, an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population has been shown. A consistent decrease in adult consumption of added sugar in per cents of the total calorie intake was revealedfrom 14.0% in 1994 to 12.3-12.8% in 2012-2018. Changes in the structure of energy consumption and macronutrients are due to changes in the structure of the food ration set that have occurred over the years of observation. The total consumption of dairy products in terms of milk increased: the consumption of the amount of dairy products (drinks and “spoons”), curd products and cheeses increased, only the consumption of drinking milk did not change. In 2012 and 2013 consumption of meat products and sausages was significantly higher than in previous years. There was an increase in the consumption of fish, vegetables, fruits, fats and oils, juices in the 2000s compared with the 1990s. On the contrary, over the years of observation, a consistent decrease in the consumption of the total grain products was observed. These changes in the consumption of macronutrients and foods are a characteristic feature of the transition period from “poor” to “rich” dietary intake and the increase in 2000s in the diet energy density due to an increase in the proportion of fat and a decrease in the proportion of carbohydrates, which contribute to weight gain and an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The dependence of the structure of the diet on the economic situation of the family has been established, which implies the problem of malnutrition, both general malnutrition and insufficient intake of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), in poor families.
Conclusion. An assessment of the current nutritional status of the Russian population implies a double burden of disruption, determined both by the simultaneous presence of malnutrition problems and the increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
The development of children nutrition science in Russia
The article presents the main directions of children nutrition science in Russia, that starts at the Institute of Nutrition (nowadays Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety). Almost all areas of children nutrition - from early age to adulthood, from the organization of public nutrition to personalized approaches - were developed on the base of the Department of Children Nutrition, founded in 1932. Years of beneficial work of famous Russian specialists in the field of pediatric dietetics and nutrition science are associated with this Department, for instance professors E.M. Fateeva, K.S. Ladodo, I.Ya. Kon and their followers. The priority role of the Department of Children Nutrition in different areas of nutrition science is also shown in the article, for example in the development and improvement of physiological needs in nutrients and energy for children, pregnant and nursing women; development of new specialized infant foods, including first Russian formulas. Perinatal nutrition science, fundamental research on the composition of breast milk, creation of the system supporting breastfeeding, and design of dietary approaches to the correction of alimentary-dependent diseases were developed. The research on the effects of the hormonal composition of breast milk on the growth rate of infants who are breastfed has attracted the interest of the world scientific community. In recent years, fundamentally new scientific directions have been formed, based on the theory of “foodprogramming”, and nutrigenetic research has been developed. An important impetus in the development of modern pediatric nutritional science is the introduction of new approaches based on the achievements of nutritional metabolomics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics, digital technologies, and innovations in the field of food production. Nowadays children's nutrition in our country has confidently developed into an independent scientific direction, its main sections have been clearly identified: prenatal nutrition; infant and toddler nutrition; nutrition of preschool and school-age children; epidemiology of child nutrition; technologies for the production of infant and baby food and its safety.
Anthroponutriciology: the development of the ideas of the founders of a new scientific direction
The most outstanding Russian anatomists and anthropologists D.A. Zhdanov and B.A. Nikityuk and the leading nutritionist A.A. Pokrovsky were the founders of the Anthroponutritiology, which arose at the junction of Anthropological Anatomy and Nutrition Science and represented a new stage in the integration of these two sciences. Both Sciences, enriching each other with facts, existing methodology and established traditions, implementing modern innovative approaches, bring the physical and nutritional status of individuals closer to the standard (the "gold standard"). One of the applied tasks of Anthroponutritiology is the identification of the constitutional dependence of morpho-physiological characters and determination of anthropological and clinical associations. Solving problems of Anthroponutritiology is a primary public concern, the most crucial state task. This issue is under the mandate of Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology and biotechnology, which implements this new branch of Science.
Vitaminology: from molecular aspects to improving technology of vitamin status children and adults
A statistical analysis of the data on the sufficiency with vitamins of certain groups of the Russian adults and children from 1987 to 2017 revealed certain patterns. At first, the presence of multiple micronutrient deficiency (vitamins D, B group, as well as a number of minerals) is still a characteristic feature. At second, vitamin D deficit is the most common. At third, the decrease in the frequency of detection of B vitamin deficiency was inhibited and it still persists in a significant number of examined individuals (median detection frequency is 41%). Vitamin C, A and E deficiency is rarely found among healthy adults. The literature analysis and rat model studies show that the performance of each vitamin depends on the saturation of the organism with other vitamins. Sufficient provision of the body with all vitamins is a necessary condition for the implementation of many functions of vitamin D, the functions of B vitamins are inextricably linked. A diet composed of traditional products does not allow reaching the optimal supply of the body with vitamins and minerals. Everyday using of fortified foods or vitamin-mineral supplements (VMS) is an effective way to eliminate the micronutrient deficiency in the nutrition of the population. The theoretical basis for the development of VMS, intended for different groups of the population, includes the study of the initial vitamin-mineral status, features of work and physical activity, taking into account the role of the lack of individual vitamins in the development of the pathological process and the drug therapy used, individual characteristics of metabolism, in particular due to gene polymorphism. VMS with optimal composition should include vitamin D and all vitamins of B group. The doses of vitamins should be significant, comparable with the recommended daily intake. Additional biomedical requirements for the composition of VMS are formed taking into account the characteristics of the diet. The dose of the antioxidant vitamins and mineral substances should be increased in order to mitigate the effect of dietary fiber with adsorbing properties or polyunsaturated fatty acids that are susceptible to peroxidation and reduce antioxidant status of the organism. VMS with increased doses of all vitamins are intended for the quick and effective elimination of micronutrient deficiency. The total daily intake of micronutrients should not be excessive.
Novel food sources: from GMO to the broadening of Russia's bioresource base
The modern strategy of humanity food providing is aimed at finding the exit from the food crisis in the shortest possible time, by the end of XXI century food and feed production should increase by at least 70%. These tasks solution implies not only the use of science-oriented technologies, but also the expansion of the food base by means of novel food sources, which don't have a history of safe use. In the Russian Federation the formation of novel food's safety assessment approaches is regulated at the state level and is the most important requirement for the possibility of usage. Russian experience of the second half of the XX century in the area of novel food sources’ biomedical research unites two stages. The first of them dates back to the middle of the 1960s', when the Soviet scientists, in particular, the workforce of the Institute of Nutrition of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, under the leadership of Academician A.A. Pokrovskii, have developed the evaluation approaches of the biological value and safety of microbial synthesized protein. The second stage of the safety assessment research development was the work with the genetically modified organisms of plant origin (GMO), that begun in the middle of the 1990s'. Since the moment of formation in 1995-1996, 9 methodical guidelines that regulate methods of safety assessment and control over GMO have been developed. Comprehensively formed by 2020, safety assessment system has been used in the framework of 27 GMO lines state registration that passed a whole cycle of medical and biological research and were allowed for use in nutrition of the population of the Eurasian Economic Union. Within the framework of these research a considerable amount of factual material has been accumulated, a regulatory and methodological basis has been built, and a substantial background for further fundamental and applied scientific research in the field of development and safety assessment of novel food has been created.
Chemical food safety: development of methodological and regulatory base
The review presents the results of studies carried out in the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology in the direction of food toxicology, the purpose of which was to improve the risk assessment methodology, substantiate hygienic regulations for the content of chemical contaminants in foodstuffs and develop methods for their detection and quantitative determination. New challenges and problems associated with the control and regulation of chemical contaminants in foods are associated, firstly, with the identification of previously unrecognized chemical factors harmful to human health, and, secondly, are caused by the progress of technologies, accompanied by the emergence of new sources of nutrients and methods of processing foodstuffs, which, along with many benefits and advantages, creates new potential risks to consumer health. Among the priority chemical pollutants, which should be mentioned currently as objects of improved regulation and control methods, are toxic elements (organic and inorganic forms of arsenic, mercury, nickel), veterinary drugs, phycotoxins, phytotoxins, new mycotoxins, various forms of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, biologically active substances of plant origin, concentrated during the production of extracts, as well as so-called technological contaminants, food additives, residual amounts of technological aids. An independent problem is the assessment of risks from nanoparticles and nanomaterials used in the production of foodstuffs, as well as enzyme preparations and food ingredients produced with the help of genetically modified microorganisms. The system of toxicological and hygienic assessment and control of chemical contaminants in foodstuffs operating in Russia is constantly being improved on the basis of new scientific data to substantiate the permissible levels of their content in products and new methods of analysis. The results obtained are reflected in the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation and the Eurasian Economic Union.
Microbiological safety of food: development of normative and methodical base
The main results and prospects of fundamental and applied hygienic research of the laboratory of biosafety and nutrimicrobiome analysis of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (hereinafter - the Institute of Nutrition) in the direction of developing a regulatory and methodological framework for assessing the microbiological safety of food are reviewed. The formation of microbiological regulation as a scientific analytical and administrative managerial process in the former USSR and the Russian Federation is considered in the context of historical data, including personal contribution of the scientists of the Institute of Nutrition and other specialists. The basic principles of regulation are emphasized: the scientific validity of the established criteria and requirements, the feasibility, technological attainability, differentiation according to the degree of danger to the health of consumers, preventive nature. The resource of the national normative and methodological base in the field of microbiological food safety at the turn of the century is characterized, the features of the introduction of the microbiological risk assessment (MRA) methodology in the substantiation of Russian norms and measures for the prevention offood infections are described. The information is given on the developed guidance documents on MRA and on the examples of norms adopted on its basis. The article covers the issues of reglamentation the requirements for food safety and reducing the spread of new pathogens Stx-Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter spp. in the food chain based on risk-oriented approaches. The necessity of taking specific measures for the prevention of cross-contamination in the poultry processing industry is substantiated, taking into account the evidence of the high adaptability of C. jejuni isolated from domestic raw poultry. In the sanitarian-mycological aspect, the monitoring perspective of mould fungi, taking into account their chemotypes, in cereals and non-grain plant products is shown to predict the risk of mycotoxin accumulation and take timely measures. The need to assess the impact on the population, taking into account the characteristics of consumption in the country, as well as the development of criteria for indirect risk of residues are argued for regulation of the antibiotics in food. In light of the challenges in the field of agro - and food technologies to public health at the present stage, contributing to the acceleration of microbial evolution and the emergence of new risks in food, the priority tasks of improving the regulatory and methodological base for assessing microbio -logical safety have been identified, with an emphasis on the introduction into the process of substantiating the norms of innovative OMICs-technologies based on the achievements of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics.
Cardiovascular nutrition: disease management and prevention as major public health problem nowadays
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in many developed countries. At the same time, nutrition is the basis of preventive cardiology. Earlier researches were focused on the importance of individual nutrients, including saturated fats, sodium, and dietary fiber, or certain foods, such as fruits, vegetables, fish, and olive oil, in the development of CVD. Recently, however, an analysis of nutritional patterns has been preferred to take into account the heterogeneity of the diet and the interaction of foods and nutrients. Besides, studies of the cardioprotective potential of bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols, peptides, oligosaccharides, vitamins, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, are of particular interest. This paper covers dietary patterns that are associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, including the Mediterranean diet. The use of a pattern-based approach will help practitioners make optimal and meaningful changes to the patients’ diet. Personalized diet therapy is also very important, which implies flexibility and tailoring guidelines to patient needs and comorbidities.
Obesity as a global challenge of the 21st century: clinical medical nutrition, prevention and therapy
The article presents modern data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, provides updated information on personalized programs for managing body weight, individual recommendations for a healthy diet, adequate physical activity and long-term lifestyle changes. It is shown that dietary therapy is the basic treatment method in weight loss programs and is aimed at long-term maintenance of a negative energy balance in the patient's organism by limiting the calorie intake. A significant place in the article is devoted to the use of diets modified by calorie value and macronutrient content which are recommended for obese patients. A strategy for the prevention of obesity and its associated diseases is presented.
Innovative approaches to study food patterns in functional gastrointestinal disorders
Dietary patterns play an important role in pathogenesis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders.
The aim - to perform literature review on modern approaches to perform nutritional assessment in functional gastrointestinal disorders and to summarize available data on its role in assessment of clinical manifestations and treatment of these conditions.
Material and methods. A search was performed in the PubMed and Google scholar system with the use of keywords: “nutritionalpattern”, “dietary pattern”, in combination with “methodology”, “assessment”, “functional gastrointestinal disorders”, “GERD”, “gastroesophageal reflux disease”, “irritable bowel syndrome”, “IBS”, “small intestinal bacterial overgrowth”, “treatment”. The inclusion criteria were type of the paper (original study); they had to contain data on nutrition of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders; main digital data should be present (sample size, design, diagnostic criteria, patients’ eligibility criteria, control group characteristics, as well as results in quantitative characteristics and measure of dispersion of values).
Results and discussion. Based on the data of 81 selected papers structured literature review was performed. We summarized the data on the methods of food patterns assessment, the knowledge on the food patterns in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (including gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome), clinical utility of the nutritional assessment with the use of food patterns. Assessment of nutritional patterns in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders provides additional evidence that allows to correct the diet of these patients more effectively, to achieve better results of treatment in shorter time, to reduce the number of medications, and may be of use for the development of new functional foods.
The problem of food allergies at the present stage
The increase in the number of patients with allergic diseases, which are caused by food allergy, has become one of the leading problems of the XXI century. Expanding the spectrum of food allergens responsible for the development of food allergies raises the question of increasing knowledge in this area for practitioners. The article presents data on causally significant food allergens and food additives that cause the development of food allergies, as well as information on the main food proteins and their components involved in the formation of cross-reactivity. Modern methods of molecular diagnostics and an algorithm for diagnosing food allergies and food intolerances are presented.
Nutrition and orphan diseases
Diagnosis and treatment of orphan (rare) diseases is an important problem of modern pediatrics due to multivarious clinical signs and severe course of this pathology. Orphan diseases are associated with accumulation, absence or insufficient synthesis of one or several metabolites in the organism. The absence of early diagnostics and treatment of patients with such diseases leads to bad prognosis. A diet is the main treatment method of many orphan diseases. A diet must be personalized and base on thorough examination of nutritional status. Individual diet therapy promotes an improvement of patient's status and enhances an effect of other forms of treatment for compensation of metabolic disorders, decrease of complication risk and increase of life quality. The article summarizes the experience of treatment of children with orphan diseases in the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition of Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety. 444 patients with inherited disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and more rare diseases (tyrosinemia, lysosomal acid lipase deficit, fructosemia, urea cycle disturbances, α1-antitrypsine insufficiency etc.) have been evaluated in the Department since 2008. The results of the examination and treatment of children with glycogen storage diseases (n=131), fructosemia (n=18), inherited disturbances of lipid metabolism (n=118) and other rare diseases are represented in the paper. The monitoring of nutritional status can help to correct therapy depending on character and severity of pathological process for benign course of the disease.
Sports nutrition as a model of maximum individualization and implementation of integrative medicine
Nutrition is the basis for the implementation of sports activities. Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology, as the main institution of the Russian Federation that conducts scientific research in the field of the nutrition science, has developed a number of methodological recommendations on sports anthropology and various areas of prevention of metabolic disorders in athletes over the past decades. The separate section of research was the development of methods for preventing dehydration in athletes of various sports. Depending on the results of the study of the individual athlete nutritional status using integrative medicine methods there was a transition to personalization of recommendations, both on the composition of the traditional diet, and on the inclusion of specialized sport foods and dietary supplements in it. A lot of work is being done on state regulation, including state Standards, in the field of Specialized foodstuffs for athletes' nutrition. Recipes and production technologies of this group of products have been developed. The developed evidence-based educational programs allow to introduce the acquired knowledge in the field of optimal nutrition into the practice of sport activity.
Databases of the chemical composition of foods in the era of digital nutrition science
By studying the chemical composition of foods, expanding the list of data on the content of nutrients, including minor biologically active substances, in the era of digital nutrition science, it became possible to create relevant systematic databases of the chemical composition of foods and rations in general. They allow us to solve various problems of modern society from the point of view of nutrition science.
This review aim to analyze and generalize modern approaches to the formation and updating of databases of the chemical composition of food products from the standpoint of digital nutrition science.
Results. This review considers the main provisions regarding creation of databases, directions for the development of food chemistry, discusses existing international programs for collecting and compiling data. The methods of systematizing data on the qualitative composition and content of biologically active and minor substances in products, as well as the problems associated with the development and metrological certification of highly selective highly sensitive analytical methods necessary to obtain reliable and reproducible data are considered.
Conclusion. The development of digital nutrition science significantly increases the availability and quality of information on the chemical composition of foods, and allows it to be updated quickly. Further improvement of the quality of the data presented in the tables of chemical composition is associated with the establishment of stability and relationships between micro- and macro-components, their influence on the safety, stability of the chemical structure, the influence of the physic-chemical characteristics of the matrix on nutritive value of foods, determination of the content of specific minor components, development of relevant regulatory documents.
Biological value of fruits and berries of Russian production
Fruits and berries are the most important sources of a wide range of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins.
In order to replenish and update data on the content of food and biologically active substances in the tables of the chemical composition of food products, a study of the content of mono - and disaccharides, dietary fiber was carried out; vitamins C, B1, B2 and E, minerals and trace elements; flavonoids (in terms of rutin), anthocyanins; organic and hydroxycinnamic acids, stilbenoids in various varieties of 16 fruit and berry crops.
Material and methods. The material for the study was the fruits of promising varieties and selected forms of pome fruit (apple, pear), stone fruit (cherry, plum, apricot), berry (garden strawberry, raspberry, black currant, red currant, gooseberry), non-traditional crops (actinidia, honeysuckle, cornelian cherry, viburnum, sea buckthorn, rosehip) - a total of208 samples grown at the I.V. Michurin Federal Scientific Center. The B vitamins were determined by the fluorometric method, and vitamin E, organic and hydroxycinnamic acids, carbohydrates, and stilbenoids were determined by HPLC. The amount of anthocyanin pigments was determined by pH differential spectrophotometry, dietary fiber - by enzymatic-gravimetric method, flavonoids - spectrophotometrically.
Results and discussion. The main carbohydrate of apricot is sucrose, black currants, cherries, raspberries and honeysuckle contain mainly fructose and glucose. Raspberries and currants are high in fiber. Comparison of the obtained data on the content of vitamins B1, B2, E, flavonoids and anthocyanins in the studied population of varieties in comparison with the published data of tables of the chemical composition of food products in the USA and Russia was carried out. By the content of vitamin C in descending order, the fruits are arranged in a row: black currant > sea buckthorn > honeysuckle > strawberry > red currant > viburnum > gooseberry > raspberry > apple. Berries, making a significant contribution to providing the body with vitamin C, are not an essential source of vitamins B and E. The inclusion of 100 g of fresh fruit in the diet provides about 10% of the recommended dietary intake for potassium (apricot, gooseberry, cherry and black currant), magnesium (apple, cherry, strawberry) and dietary fiber. Honeysuckle and black currant are high in anthocyanins; consumption of 100 g of these berries will ensure adequate intake of these micronutrients. Some varieties of strawberries, apples and pears are rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. The data obtained can be used to refine the indicators in the existing tables of the chemical composition of food products.
Conclusion. The obtained data on the composition of fruit and berry products will make it possible to more correctly calculate the nutritional value of rations using questionnaire-survey methods. Combined analysis of the composition of biologically active substances in berries and fruits makes it possible to more reasonably make the choice of a particular product in the dietary correction of the ration of healthy and sick people.
Dynamics of innovations in food technologies: from specialization to personalization
Dynamically changing global trends in the field of innovative foods in recent years are aimed at the development of technologies that ensure the formation of segments of new types of products, positioned as healthy products.
Scientific directions of research and development in this area, retrospectively related to the development of nutrition science, are focused on solving an interdisciplinary set of tasks to create new types of foods, the distinctive features of which are the specified compositions and properties that determine the health benefits (functional foods) and directed physiological effectiveness (specialized foods for preventive and therapeutic nutrition).
Characteristics of the composition of a specific specialized food are formed in connection with its intended purpose on the basis of medico-biological requirements taking into account specific features of nutrition of the population in total, and its separate groups or individual. Depending on the mentioned specifics, the development of specialized foods provides for different levels of determining human needs: from energy consumption to the metabolome.
Taking into account these features, the development tasks, methods of proving the effectiveness and conditions for using specialized foods in order to achieve maximum effect are determined. In studies of prophylactic or therapeutic foods, the subject of evaluating the effectiveness of a specialized product is the clinical effect, so innovative research in this category of products is associated with the creation of a universal approach to the development, use and evaluation of the effectiveness of biologically active substances and containing them specialized foods for the correction of metabolic disorders. The vector of innovative development of technologies for the production of specialized foods is focused today on the direction of personalized nutrition. The basis of scientific justification of the distinctive features of the compositions and properties, as well as technological know-how of the production of personalized foods, is the information about the metabolome directly related to the biological functions of the body.
New breeding and technological evaluation criteria for fruit and berry products for the healthy and dietary food industry
For the formation of a healthy diet, it is important to provide an economic and physical availability of the assortment of import-substituting high quality and safe horticultural products, and to improve the industrial assortment. Wherein, the traits which define the consumer demand, such as quality and the chemical composition of fruits, saturation with essential micronutrients for healthy and dietary nutrition, should be taken into account in the first place among other breeding criteria, such as an early maturity and productivity.
The aim of the research was the determination of breeding and technological priorities for fruits and berries from the point of view of the content of macro - and micronutrients for the development of dietary foodstuffs.
Material and methods. The object of the investigation was the data on the content of protein, total sugar, mono- and disaccharides, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, organic acids, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, resveratrol, piceid, vitamins С, E, B1, B2, PP and carotenoids in samples of fruit and berry crops grown on the experimental production sites of the Federal Research Center named after I.V. Michurin (25 varieties of apple, 21 varieties of pear, 14 - of cherry, 5 - apricot, 10 - honeysuckle, 14 - strawberry, 8 forms of viburnum, 18 varieties of raspberry, 13 varieties of gooseberry, 10 forms of sea buckthorn, 12 varieties of plum, 8 varieties of red currant, 12 varieties of black currant). The statistical software package Statistica 6 was used for statistical data processing and construction of mathematical models.
Results and discussion. The scale of priority distribution was developed, based on the analysis of the micronutrient composition of fruit and berries. The limits of low, medium and high micronutrient content in horticultural products were defined. Therefore, the threshold values of high level (3 points) were determined as ≥6 g/100 g for the dietary fiber and ≥30% of the recommended daily intake for the biologically active substances (BAS), minerals and trace elements. The threshold values of medium level of content (2 points) were determined as ≥3 g/100 g for the dietary fiber, ≥15% of the recommended daily intake for the BAS, minerals and trace elements. And threshold values of low level of content (1 points) were determined as values of indicators which are less than aforementioned. It was found that the categories of low priority (1 point) in the studied crops include protein, vitamins B1 (except for honeysuckle), B2, E (except for sea buckthorn) and PP, as well as sodium, calcium and zinc. The majority of the research objects has medium values as a source of soluble dietary fiber, carotenoids, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and potassium. The content of ascorbic acid and polyphenolic compounds, including anthocyanidins demonstrates the highest priority among the studied crops (3 points). According to the data obtained, the most of cultivars has a high content of organic acids (citric and malic), and more than 45.0% of the cultivars have a high content of vitamin C. 55.8% of cultivars have a high content of polyphenolic compounds, while 23.4% of cultivars are the sources of polyphenolic compounds too. Also 45.8% of cultivars have a high content of anthocyanidins, 25.0% of cultivars have a high content of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, 2.9% of cultivars are rich in iron. 62.0% of cultivars are the sources of soluble dietary fiber, 49.6% - sources of flavonoids, 13.0% - sources of potassium, 5.8% - sources of magnesium, 2.9% - sources of copper.
Conclusion. The assessment of the chemical composition of fruits and berries from the standpoint of the presence and the content of macro- and micronutrients and BAS, proposed as a breeding program priority for the development of foodstuffs for specialized, dietary and therapeutic nutrition, is the basis for the future work on identification of complex sources, formation of unique food matrices, and selection of technological processes to develope a line of specialized foodstuffs.
Trends in the development of analytical methods for determination of the quality and authenticity of foodstuffs
The review presents several results of investigations carried out at the Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety on the development and application of modern chemical-analytical methods for determining the quality indicators, nutritional and biological value of foodstuffs. Particular attention is paid to methodological approaches to the determination of biologically active substances of dietary supplements of plant origin, to the definition of criteria for authenticity and methods to disclose falsification of food and dietary supplements. The practical application of modern analytical techniques (capillary GLC, capillary electrophoresis, HPLC with a mass spectrometric detection, UV/VIS diode-array detection, etc), combining high efficiency and selective separation and detection for identification and qualitative and quantitative determination of components in complex matrix of foodstuffs and dietary supplements is shown.
To the health of the nation through multi-level educational programs for the population in the field of optimal nutrition
Healthy nutrition is the most crucial component of the quality of life, which is understood as an integral indicator of mental, physical and social functioning of a person. The diet of Russians doesn't contain enough vegetables and fruits, dairy products, while white sugar, salt, products containing animal fat, and trans fats are in excess. Violations of the structure of nutrition and nutritional status lead to the development of diet related non-communicable diseases (cardiovascular, oncological, diabetes mellitus, obesity, gout, osteoporosis, etc.) that are the leading causes of mortality of the population. All this indicates a low level of knowledge of the people about the principles of healthy nutrition. 49.2% of Russians have almost no idea about the rules of healthy eating. In this regard, it is essential to eliminate the existing gap in the education of the population on healthy nutrition through the introduction of training programs. For this purpose, training (educational) programs on healthy eating have been developed for target groups of the population (preschool and school-age children; adults of all ages, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, people older than working age; people with an increased level of physical activity; persons working in severe and harmful conditions or living in territories with unique features in terms of the impact of environmental factors). Based on scientific institutions of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, four scientific-methodical centres and one educational centre on the issues of healthy nutrition have been created for the development of training (education) programs. A great deal of work on the implementation of educational programs for the population on healthy nutrition is carried out by the Profile Commission on Dietetics of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, which includes the chief dietitians of Federal districts of the Russian Federation.