1 . 2022
Lead article

To the 80th anniversary of the birth of Victor A. Tutelyan


The role of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics in the prophylaxis of chronic non-communicable diseases


Over the past several decades there has been an increase in the number of chronic noncommunicable diseases worldwide largely due to changes in diet and lifestyle, as well as exposure to adverse environmental factors. The so-called omics technologies (genomic, proteomic, metabolomic and transcriptomic) are used as tools for comprehensive analysis and monitoring of human health. Currently, genomic and post-genomic technologies are used to study the effects of various nutrients on human health.

The purpose of the review was to summarize and analyze modern omics technologies used in the prevention of non-communicable diseases associated with human dietary habits.

Material and methods. The literature search was carried out using PubMed, eLibrary, ResearchGate and ScienceDaily databases using the keywords “nutrigenetics”, “nutri-genomics”, “SNP”, as well as the names of specific factors, genes and diseases.

Results. The review provides up-to-date information on the role of knowledge of nutri-genetics and nutrigenomics in the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. Examples of the influence of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic variations on various aspects of nutrition are given, from which recommendations for correcting the diet of carriers of these alleles to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity follow. Examples of nutrient influence on gene expression are also given and some genetic markers of metabolic disorders which can lead to diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, inflammatory diseases of the colon, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer are listed. Recommendations are given on the practical use of the knowledge gained during nutrigenomic studies on the effect of nutrient intake on the risk of non-communicable diseases for their prevention.

Conclusion. The practical use of omics technologies can provide a more effective prevention of non-communicable diseases, contributing to an increase in the quality of life and the preservation of labor longevity of the population.

Eating behavior and skills of premature children in different age periods


Premature infant feeding often causes a number of difficulties not only during the nursing of a baby in the neonatal period, but also in further periods of the formation of nutritional skills and habits. Eating difficulties are noticeable not only during the first year of life. The further development of the eating behavior of premature children differs from full-term peers.

The aim of the publication is to demonstrate the peculiarities of eating skills and eating behavior in premature infants throughout the entire period of childhood.

Material and methods. The search for original studies and systematic reviews that evaluated eating skills or eating behavior in children and adolescents born prematurely at various age periods was carried out using the and PubMed databases.

Results. Children with a gestation period of less than 32 weeks at birth are most vulnerable to the development of eating disorders, since the suck-swallow-breath pattern is in the process of maturation. Eating difficulties are noticeable during the first year of life, since the formation of eating behavior is closely related to the development of motor skills and the neurodevelopment. The proportion of premature children experiencing nutritional difficulties decreases with age, but does not become comparable with that among full-term peers. Later with time, motor disorders are replaced by selective appetite, and tendencies to eating disorders are formed. In addition, with age, gender differences in eating behavior appear, which are characterized by an increase in eating disorders among boys.

Conclusion. Currently, the data demonstrating characteristic age patterns in children born prematurely have been accumulated. Such a long-term effect of premature birth on eating behavior dictates the need for close attention to this group of children among pediatricians and the development of specialized programs for monitoring of preterm children.

Sick fat (adiposopathy) as the main contributor to metabolic syndrome


Obesity, primarily the accumulation of visceral fat (prone to lipolysis and inflammation) is considered the most important pathogenetic link in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The purpose of the review was to present and summarize current information on the negative impact of adipose tissue dysfunction and the role of this phenomenon in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Material and methods. A systematic search of Web of Science, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases was performed.

Results. Adipose tissue secretes a huge variety of biologically active substances - free fatty acids, adipokines, inflammatory mediators. These substances have a negative effect on insulin-sensitive and all other tissues, inducing inextricably linked free-radical oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, histotoxic hypoxia, maladaptive autophagy, apoptosis, dysregulation of transcriptome and post-translational processes, overload of non-fat tissues with lipids (lipotoxicity) enhanced by hyperinsulinemia, and many other cytotoxic mechanisms. Target organ damage disrupts the finely tuned network of feedbacks between the brain, liver, gut, microbiome, muscles, adipose tissue, classic glands and the rest of the organs, provided by myokines, hepatokines, bathokines and other substances, among others. Based on some experimental and clinical data, we agree with the notions that the qualitative aspect - adipocyte dysfunction (adiposopathy) - is at least as important as cell mass. Sick fat has a number of differences from healthy tissue, among which there are indicated mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, disorders of browning, cell death, and removal of senescent cells (senolysis). The obesity paradox can be explained from the pathophysiological point of view by this distinction (although the main explanation, in our opinion, should be sought in the internal validity of the works revealing this phenomenon).

Conclusion. The treatment of obesity and its consequences should be based on «healing» rather than «extermination» of adipocytes. Implementation of this approach requires homeostatic influence on neuroimmunoendocrine regulation. Of the available tools, metformin, incretin drugs, sodium-glucose transporter inhibitors, and bariatric surgery probably meet this requirement the most.

Prospective molecular methods for sequencing microorganisms in the system of assessment and control of food safety


To solve one of the most important tasks of food hygiene – ensuring foodstuff biosafety, the leading place is given to the use of nucleic acid sequencing methods that allow to identify and describe the nucleotide sequences of genomes both in individual microorganisms and metagenomic characteristics of microbial communities in environmental objects, in humans and animals.

The purpose of the review was to analyze the main areas of sequencing application in food microbiology, biotechnology and epidemiology.

Material and methods. The collection and analysis of scientific and informational materials published in domestic and foreign publications from Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, RSCI databases, official reports of the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and other published sources has been carried out.

Results. The review presents generalized characteristics of the most well-known sequencing formats based on different principles of reading and processing genetic information: capillary sequencing by Sanger, pyrosequencing, sequencing by ligation, sequencing by DNA synthesis, semiconductor high-performance sequencing, sequencing of individual DNA molecules. It is shown that multilocus analysis (MLST, MLVA) increases the specificity of genotyping and intraspecific identification of food-borne pathogens. It is used to assess the pathogenic potential and study the mechanisms of evolutionary variability of bacterial pathogens, leading to polymorphism of clonal lines and the appearance of strain-specific differences, to monitor the different genotypes of pathogens in production and other objects of the food chain. Nanopore sequencing is promising for studying bacterial plasmids and localization of resistance genes of MDR bacteria. Genome-wide analysis (WGS) makes it possible to identify detailed characteristics of pathogens of infectious diseases, including uncultivated and previously unknown microorganisms, as well as to study the features of the organization of individual pro- and eukaryotic genomes, gene regulation systems, pathogenicity factors and protein expression. The role of WGS methods for determining the degree of genetic kinship of infectious agents isolated from various sources in the investigation of outbreaks and sporadic food poisoning and infections is shown. The possibilities of metagenomic sequencing in the study of species composition, genetic diversity and metabolic potential of microbial communities are demonstrated. The main advantage of metagenomics is the possibility of direct sequencing of the genomes of microorganisms living in the human body, animals, water, soil and other objects. Metagenomic analysis plays a leading role in the detection of unexplored taxa, uncultivated and difficult-to-cultivate forms of a wide range of microorganisms. The most important direction of metagenomics is the study of the human or animal microbiome, the analysis of the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and metabolism, as well as the formation of the nutritional status of a person. Theoretical and practical aspects of the implementation of high-performance sequencing methods in the system of food biosafety assessment and control are reviewed: safety assessment of genetically modified strains of food producers, development of fundamentally new algorithms for investigating outbreaks of infectious diseases, creation of network systems for early diagnosis and notification of food infections of bacterial and viral


Conclusion. Sequencing should become a standard methodology in the field of food safety for the identification and characterization of food pathogens, including those with resistance to antibiotics and adverse technological effects. The introduction of WGS into the food safety assessment and control system will make it possible to assess real food contamination with new and newly returning pathogens, create electronic databases and scientifically substantiate the most adequate measures for the prevention of food infections and ensuring the health of the population.

Regulatory role and anticarcinogenic properties of certain vitamins’ active derivatives and vitamin-like substances


Vitamins are low-molecular compounds consisting of an essential part of the human diet. After entering the human organism vitamins or their precursors can undergo chemical modification, changing their biological properties and regulatory activity. For many decades, vitamins were considered mainly as precursors of enzyme cofactors, and hypovitaminosis was interpreted as a deficiency of a particular metabolite resulting from enzyme’s insufficient activity. However, with the development of molecular biology techniques and breakthrough in understanding of gene expression regulation and cell signaling mechanisms, as well as in molecular mechanisms of diseases associated with impaired functions, it became clear that there are significantly more active forms of vitamins, and their functions in the human body are more diverse than it had been suggested previously.

The purpose of this review was to consider vitamins’ and vitamins’ derivatives regulatory and anti-tumor role and their potential for clinical application as main or adjuvant drugs for malignant neoplasms treatment.

Material and methods. The present review is based on the results of literature analysis conducted in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct databases for the keywords «vitamin A AND cancer», «retinoids AND cancer», «vitamin D AND cancer», «vitamins AND cancer», «vitamins AND cancer». The search depth was 6 years (2016-2021).

Results. Active forms of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamins are key participants in the processes of chromatin remodeling, genome stability maintaining, covalent modification of proteins, including signaling and regulatory ones, and also act as chemical messengers themselves. Therefore, vitamin deficiency is associated with autoimmune and chronic diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, etc. This review considers the regulatory role of active forms of vitamins, their derivatives and vitamin-like substances as well as their involvement in the process of carcinogenesis.

Conclusions. Modern studies confirm the high therapeutic potential of vitamins: the use of pharmacological doses of vitamins or their derivatives may help to prevent or fight non-communicable diseases, including cancer.

Role of calcium in health and reducing the risk of non-communicable diseases


Calcium as an essential mineral is involved in many processes in the body, being the main one in the mineral matrix of bones and teeth. It is necessary for conducting nerve impulses, blood coagulation, muscle contraction, regulation of the transport of various ions through the cell membrane, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and the activity of many enzymes. In Russia, insufficient calcium intake is noted.

The purpose of the work was to assess the role of calcium of various origins in meeting the needs and health of the population.

Material and methods. Literature search was carried out using the PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, RSCI, CyberLeninka systems, mainly for the last 10 years, with the exception of research of fundamental importance, using the keywords “calcium”, “milk ”, “bioavailability ”.

Results. Dairy consumption is associated with an overall reduction in the risk of noncommunicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. Calcium in natural milk and dairy products, as well as calcium of milk origin, has a higher bioavailability and absorption than from other sources of synthetic or natural mineral origin. The recommendation to reduce dairy consumption may be counterproductive to health and therefore may increase health care costs.

Conclusion. Milk and dairy products are the optimal source of calcium. The high bioavailability of calcium of milk origin justifies the expediency of its preferred use in dietary nutrition, both as part of therapeutic diets in hospitals and nutrition in social service institutions, and in outpatient practice. Additional studies, including randomized controlled trials, may be needed to explore in more detail the optimal consumption of milk and dairy products, as well as the use of calcium-containing pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements.

Predictors of severe course of atopic dermatitis


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease that occurs most frequently in children. The disease is characterized as chronic, but only 20% of children suffer from severe AD, while the other 80% reach a long-term remission by the age of 8. The aim of the research was the analysis of modern sources of domestic and foreign literature, highlighting the features of the course of severe forms of AD.

Results. The multifactorial nature of AD pathogenesis, based on the complex interaction of genetic factors, the immune system, the skin microbiome and environmental factors, causes certain difficulties for the physician, both in the diagnosis and therapy selection, and in predicting the course of the disease. Each patient has his own individual combination of clinical symptoms, medical history and aggravating factors that should be considered as predictors of the severity of the disease.

Conclusion. Particular attention should be paid to patients with an early onset of AD, increased transepidermal water loss, with extensive skin lesions at the onset of the disease and under dynamic observation, with concomitant food allergies and/or bronchial asthma.

Fermented milk and probiotic foods are an important part of population diet during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic


The problem of increasing the population antiviral immunity is of particular importance during the third year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Concomitant intestinal dysbiosis is known to play an significant role in immune cell dysfunction. Therefore, it is very important to take measures to maintain the gut microbiota using the most affordable nutritional remedies, which include fermented milk and probiotic products designed for mass population consumption and capable of enhancing their immune defence when added to the daily diet.

The aim of the study was to analyze scientific evidence highlighting the role of intestinal microbiota in maintaining the macro-organism immunological balance, and to evaluate modern fermented milk and probiotic products in terms of their effect on normalising the gut microbiota and their importance in the prevention and treatment of SA RS-CoV-2.

Material and methods. The presented scientific and analytical review analyzed the data of electronic resources of the Global Health platform, scientific libraries eLIBRARY.RU, Cochrane Library and CyberLeninka, the search system Google Academy», specialized sites for scientific publications ScienceDirect and Elsevier, bibliographic databases of articles on medical sciences MEDLINE, CDC infection diseases, Embase and PubMed-NCBI. The structural-logical, analytical and axiomatic methods were used.

Results. It has been shown that normal intestinal microbiota takes part in maintaining metabolism in the digestive tract, increases the body’s immune reactivity and regulates the functioning of all organs and systems. The severity of dysbiotic disorders can determine susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, the severity of this infection course, as well as the level of post-infection and post-vaccination anti-COVID-19 immunity. The high prevalence of gut dysbacteriosis indicates the need to strengthen measures of correcting dysbiotic disorders, including the inclusion of fermented and probiotic products in the daily population diet.

Conclusion. Fermented milk and probiotic products, as sources of easily digestible macronutrients, essential micronutrients, biologically active substances and beneficial live microorganisms, should be included in the daily diet during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to increase the adaptive capacity and immunity of the population.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Discussion of the immunomorphological role of interactions between mast cells and Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa


Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis accounts for 70% of cases in the structure of this pathology. Features of the long-term inflammatory reaction of the mucous membrane are directly related to the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity, and features of immunogenesis within narrow limits of the specific tissue microenvironment of organ structures. Mast cells appear to be one of the key players (promoters) in the regulation of the inflammatory mediator cascade and the formation of cytokine-induced expression. Possessing a wide arsenal of biologically active substances, mast cells are able to participate in the formation of the immune response and resistance of the gastric mucosa, modulating both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. The antigen-presenting features of mast cells are of interest in terms of interaction with H. pylori and induction of mucosa bacterial colonization.

The aim of study was to assess the mast cell tryptase profile of the gastric mucosa in the immunopathogenesis of H. pylori-associated inflammation.

Material and methods. The study included 19 biopsies of the gastric mucosa with unknown status of H. pylori infection. Microslides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Giemsa’s dye for plain microscopy. H. pylori infection of the gastric mucosa was detected using the immunohistochemical method. Using double immunofluorescent labeling, localization of tryptase-positive mast cells and H. pylori strains was detected.

Results. In patients infected with H. pylori (n=12), there was a significant increase in the number of tryptase-positive mast cells (177.99±30.55 vs 88.58±11.49; p<0.05) with activation of secretory pathways and release of protease into the extracellular matrix of the gastric mucosa. The quantitative parameters of mast cells in the group of patients with an undetected pathogen and signs of a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa were statistically significantly lower than in the group of infected patients. Co-localization of tryptase-positive mast cells and H. pylori strains (with the formation of areas of large free-lying granule accumulation around the glands with pronounced degree of H. pylori contamination) was detected in gastrobiopsy specimens, the fact evidencing their close involvement in the development of inflammatory reactions of the gastric mucosa.

Conclusion. The study demonstrated the features of mast cells and H. pylori interaction revealing previously unknown aspects of gastritis pathophysiology. The data obtained contribute a valuable insight to choose a treatment strategy for H. pylori-associated gastritis.

Accordance of energy intake to energy expenditure in skiers across the preparation phase


In elite sport the amount of physical activity requires a professional athlete to have a stable energy balance when the energy intake (EI) is equal to energy expenditure (EE). Its maintenance provides high performance across the phases of the training cycle.

The purpose of this research was to analyze the compliance of EI to EE among skiers during the preparation phase of the training cycle.

Material and methods. The single-centre, prospective, longitudinal, full-design, non-controlled study has been performed on 55 highly trained cross-country skiers (mean age 20.1±4.7 years) during the preparation phase of the training cycle. EI was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall. EE was estimated at rest and during physical activity by indirect calorimetry using the Oxycon Pro system.

Results. During the preparation phase dietary calorie intake in skiers (3191±961 kcal/ day), estimated excluding sports drink consumption during the training, was lower approximately by 40% than the reference norms for people engaged in intensive physical activity. At the same time, there was 1.3-fold excess of fats in the diet against the background of low consumption of carbohydrates. Our results showed that in 75% of athletes the measured rest energy expenditure (REE) was higher than the calculated REE by 20% and amounted to 2139±363 kcal/day. Total EE during the preparation phase, calculated by application of Physical Activity Level (PAL) coefficient equal 2.4 (according FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations), was 5137±873 kcal/day (73.9±12.3 kcal/kg per day). In most cases registered total EE was more than 5000 kcal/day, in other words, total EE exceeded the energy value of the daily diet and thus required the increase of EI. In addition, in our study we observed an increase of carbohydrate contribution to the total EE during high-intensity exercise.

Conclusion. The discrepancy between dietary calories and daily EE among the elite athletes was revealed. An imbalance between carbohydrates and fats was identified in the diet, and that did not provide the optimal expenses of macronutrients during high-intensity exercise.


Vladimir K. Mazo (to the 75th anniversary of the birth)


Ivan V. Gmoshinsky (to the 65th anniversary of the birth)


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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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