On the question of the application of calcium preparations for the purpose of optimizing the diets of the population, including and for different diseases
In recent years, there has been a particular interest in the use of calcium in order to optimize the diet of the population. It is known that calcium, indirectly affecting nervous excitability, muscle contractility, hormone secretion and blood clotting, plays an important role in the human body. However, there is an opinion about the risks of calcium supplement intake, and concerns about possible adverse consequences are becoming more pronounced. In this regard, the aim of this study was to review the scientific literature on calcium supplement intake from the standpoint of the effectiveness of fortification of food rations and the occurrence of concomitant risks.
Results. The results of the analysis of numerous literature data allow us to conclude that due to the threat of calcium overdose and an increased risk of cardiovascular complications as a result of transient hypercalcemia, calcium intake from dietary sources is a priority, and calcium supplements should be prescribed only to patients with a serious risk of osteoporotic fractures and those individuals who, due to social reasons, cannot meet their daily nutritional needs. With equal effects, calcium consumption precisely from foods containing a sufficient amount of this micronutrient, in comparison with calcium supplements, provides the organism with other nutrients (proteins, amino acids, etc), without causing risks of side effects. It can be assumed that the results of risk-benefit assessments of calcium supplements in connection with the descriptions of risks to the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urinary-excretory systems cannot be considered final. In view of the above, cautious use of calcium supplements is recommended, especially considering their possible interaction with various medications, including antihypertensive drugs, calcium channel blockers, synthetic thyroid hormones, bisphosphonates and antibiotics, etc.
Conclusion. Given the growing concern of the medical community about the role of calcium intake and the conflicting results of individual studies, it is clear that large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to clarify the balance of benefits and risks of calcium supplementation in different populations, especially in the elderly.
Prospects of probiotic strains of bifidobacteria and enterococcus in treatment and prevention of diseases in gastroenterology
Variability of the intestinal microbiota has been under close scientific study in recent years; more and more studies confirm specific changes in microbiota under certain pathologies. Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium longum strains are naturally occurring symbiotic bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. The safety and efficacy profile of bifidobacteria, widely used as probiotics, has been thoroughly studied. Deviations in species composition, diversity, and relative abundance have been reported for some diseases.
The aim of the research was to substantiate the need and to study the prospects for the inclusion of probiotics strains of bifidobacteria and enterococci in the complex therapy of gastroenterological diseases.
Material and methods. The data from MEDLINE and PubMed-NCBI bibliographic databases have been analyzed in this review.
Results and discussion. The published data indicate the positive effect of bifidobacteria on human health, starting from a direct effect inside the gastrointestinal tract, moving to modulating the immune system and, in general, the systemic effect of probiotics on the organism by changing the level of various mediators. Probiotic strains of Enterococcus faecium contribute to the preservation and growth of endogenous species of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Additional intake, as well as stimulation of the growth and activity of probiotic strains in the intestine can be considered as a potential approach to combating foodborne intestinal pathogens, to the treatment of lactase deficiency and irritable bowel syndrome.
Conclusion. The inclusion of probiotics in the complex therapy of lactase deficiency, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as antibiotic-associated diarrhea is pathogenetically substantiated.
Zinc status improving as a pathogenetically grounded platform for maintaining immunity during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
The problem of increasing immunity has become especially relevant in the conditions of the rapid spread of the new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2. Nowadays it has been proven that a deficiency of certain micronutrients in the diet can disrupt chemical, structural and regulatory processes in the organism, which negatively affects, first of all, the state of immune system. Zinc is one of the most significant essential trace elements affecting immunological resistance.
The aim of the study was to substantiate the need of including zinc-containing products and diet supplements in the diet of the population during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the basis of the study of pathogenetic mechanisms of various disorders of the immunological status under zinc deficit.
Material and methods. This review analyzes the data from scientific electronic libraries CyberLeninka, eLIBRARY.RU, the Google Scholar databases and bibliographic medical databases MEDLINE and PubMed-NCBI.
Results and discussion. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, adequate zinc supply is especially important, due to its antiviral, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic effects. This element also regulates the severity of the cytokine response, exhibits antibacterial properties and helps to compensate for chronic comorbid diseases, which plays a particularly significant role in preventing severe SARS-CoV-2 and recurrent respiratory diseases. Prevention and correction of zinc deficiency is considered as one of the important measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, aimed at increasing antiviral and general immunity, reducing the systemic inflammatory response and correcting hormonal and metabolic status.
Conclusion. The pathogenetically substantiated inclusion of zinc-containing foods and supplements in the diet will enhance the immunity of the population during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
The role of micronutrients in the comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19
Post-COVID disorders syndrome (PCDS) is an umbrella term for a complex of persistent symptoms that a patient can develop after suffering from COVID-19.
The aim of the research was to systematize data on the role of micronutrients in the treatment of PCDS.
Material and methods. The authors carried out a systematic analysis of foreign (ncbi. nlm.nih.gov) and Russian (elibrary.ru) scientific publications.
Results. The most common symptoms that can persist for a long time after a coronavirus infection can be divided into 4 groups: 1) hypoxic syndrome (respiratory and oxygen deficiency); 2) asthenic syndrome; 3) syndrome of neuropsychiatric disorders; 4) gastrointestinal symptoms. Adequate dietary intake of vitamins and mineral substances is critical for the proper functioning of the immune system and maintenance of the organism functional reserves. The optimal consumption of vitamins D, C and E, zinc and m-3 fatty acids with ration can be useful for preventing infection, supporting immunity during COVID-19 disease and in the complex of rehabilitation of patients with PCDS.
Conclusion. Intake of dietary supplements containing complex of micronutrients can be recommended as a rational adjuvant therapy during the rehabilitation period after COVID-19. However, further research is essential to determine the effective dosage of vitamins and other micronutrients to reduce the manifestations of PCDS.
Effect of resveratrol, carnitin, quercetin and aromatic amino acids on the xenobiotic metabolising and antioxidant enzymes in the liver during obesity in rats with different genotypes
The use of minor biologically active substances (BAS) in specialized products is one of the promising areas in the diet therapy for obesity and other alimentary-dependent diseases (metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, etc.). The effects of the BAS in patients are often ambiguous, depending on a number of factors, one of which is the state of the organism enzyme systems (enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense), the patient’s genotype, and many others.
The aim was to study the effect of BAS [quercetin (Q), L-carnitine (L-Car), resveratrol (Res), aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp)] on the activities of phase I and II of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in rats using various in vivo models of obesity and with impaired dopamine transport.
Material and methods. The activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP3A), glutathione transferase (GT), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and quinone reductase (QR) were determined by fluorimetric, spectrophotometric methods and HPLC in microsomes and cytosolic fraction of rat’s liver. We used rats of outbred Wistar line, Zucker ZF line with hereditarily determined obesity and DAT-KO line with a knockout of the DAT dopamine transporter gene, which for 62 days were fed a standard balanced control or high-carbohydrate high-fat diet (30% fat by weight and 20% fructose solution instead of water) supplemented with BAS, such as Q, Res, L-Car, Tyr and Trp in doses 50, 25, 300, 1250 and 250 mg/kg of body weight respectively.
Results and discussion. The presence of a DAT knockout led to a small but statistically significant decrease in the activity of GT in the liver in both homozygous and heterozygous animals. The CYP1A1 activity was significantly decreased in all carriers of the DAT knockout gene, while HO-1 activity, on the contrary, was increased, independently of the composition of the diet used. In Zucker ZF rats of all groups, in comparison with Wistar rats fed the corresponding diets, the activities of GT, UDP-GT, CYP1A1, CYP3A and QR were significantly reduced in terms of the total protein content. HO-1 activity was reduced in Zucker ZF rats in comparison with Wistar rats to a lesser extent, however, the addition of Q significantly influenced the difference between the two lines. Trp consumption led to a significant increase in GT activity in Wistar rats. In DAT-KO homozygotes this effect was insignificant, while in heterozygotes it was absent. Similarly, consumption of Trp resulted in a significant increase in CYP1A1 activity only in Wistar rats, but not in DAT-KO rats. The activity of UDP-GT under Trp intake increased only in DAT heterozygotes. The genotype significantly influenced the response of QR activity to Trp consumption, but in an ambiguous way - there was an increase in activity in heterozygotes and a decrease in homozygotes for DAT knockout. CYP1A1 activity was significantly increased in rats treated with Tyr.
Conclusion. The data obtained indicate that the effect of various dietary supplements used in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome on the xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes and antioxidant enzymes can have a different nature and direction depending on the genotype and the level of spontaneous physical activity and energy expenditure determined by it, which should be taken into account when approaches to personalized diet therapy of alimentary-dependent diseases are developing.
Antioxidant and anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus acidophilus under conditions of normobaric hypoxia with hypercapnia
Research in recent years has shown that there is a close connection between the brain and the intestine through neuronal, endocrine and immune pathways. The introduction of probiotics into the diet of animals and humans helps to reduce the level of anxiety and depression, as well as inflammatory processes during emotional stress.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of intragastric administration of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus acidophilus on oxidative processes in the brain tissues and the level of anxiety in rats under conditions of normoxia and acute hypoxia with hypercapnia.
Material and methods. The experiment was performed on 64 male Wistar rats aged 2.5 months (body weight from 240 to 270 g). The animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1 - control; 2 - hypoxia; 3 - hypoxia + probiotics; 4 - probiotics. There were 16 animals in each group; half of them participated in the behavioral test, and the other half in the biochemical studies. Rats of groups 3 and 4 were orally administered lyophilized bacteria Bifidobacterium adolescentis MC-42, Lactobacillus acidophilus A-97, and Lactobacillus acidophilus A-630for 30 days before hypoxia. The daily dose of probiotics was 1x109 CFU per animal, administered in a volume of 1 ml. Acute hypoxia with hypercapnia was simulated by placing rats in airtight vessels with a capacity of 1L before the first agonal inhalation. A day later, in the brain tissues oxidative processes were assessed by the chemiluminescence method and by the level of malone dialdehyde (MDA). The activity of catalase in brain tissues was also determined. The level of anxiety of rats was investigated in the «elevated plus maze» test.
Results. Compared to other groups, more intensive free radical oxidation took place in the brain tissues of hypoxified animals that did not receive B. adolescentis and L. acidophilus. There was a significant increase in chemiluminescence intensity and MDA level by 38 and 15%, respectively, compared with the control. In the brain tissues of these animals, catalase activity was reduced by 10% (p<0.01). Moreover, in the group of rats treated with B. adolescentis and L. acidophilus and subjected to acute hypoxia, the value of the light sum of chemiluminescence was 22% lower (p<0.01) than in the hypoxified group without taking probiotics, while the concentration of MDA and catalase activity remained at the level of physiological norms and did not differ from control. Hypoxified animals receiving biomass of lactobacteria and bifidobacteria had also a lower level of anxiety and a higher exploratory activity, expressed in an increase in the number of entries in the open and closed arms, a longer stay in the open arms and the center of the maze, and more frequent performance of orientation reactions and hanging.
Conclusion. Pre-hypoxic administration of B. adolescentis and L. acidophilus reduces the development of oxidative stress in rat brain tissues and reduces anxiety indices in the “elevatedplus maze” test, thereby exhibiting antioxidant and anxiolytic effects.
Nutritional and biological value of Hermetia illucens larvae biomass
Recent years a worldwide interest in the use of alternative sources of protein, in particular, protein from insects, has increased. Edible insects for thousands of years have been a part of the human diet in Asian-Pacific region and South America, while in the European Union, the USA and Canada the use of insects for food purposes is a modern trend that is determined by the care of the environment, global warming combating, etc. Thus, the legal rules governing the food use of insects have significant differences among countries. In the Eurasian Economic Union requirements to food are regulated by the Customs Union Technical Regulations. Since none of the Technical Regulations contains the name of such food as “products obtained with the use of insects”, these products may be classified as “foodproducts of novel type” which are subjected to state registration. Fundamental and applied research should be conducted as a part of this novel food safety assessment system, that include the determination of nutritional and biological value of food raw materials derived from insects, and toxicological, reprotoxicological, allergological experiments in vivo on several generations of laboratory animals.
The aim of the research was studying and comparing the nutritional and biological values of Hermetia illucens larvae dry biomass and basic foodstuffs of animal and plant origin.
Material and methods. Nutritional and biological value analysis of H. illucens minced dry larvae biomass, dried at 110-120 °C, was carried out on 83 indicators, which included determination of protein content and amino acid composition, determination of fat level and fatty acid composition, determination of the content of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and trace elements, ash and moisture.
Results. A study of the nutritional value of dry larvae biomass showed high levels of protein and fat (39 and 38%, respectively), while ash, dietary fiber and carbohydrate accounted for less than 20%. The amino acid profile had a balanced content of essential amino acids and was comparable to the protein of a hen’s egg, as well as other animal products. The fatty acid composition of the biomass was characterized by a relatively high content of lauric acid (39.9% of the total fatty acid content), also found in some fruits and seeds of tropical plants; the ratio of other acids was more consistent with the fatty acid profile of fish oil. The dry larvae biomass contained carotenoids (0.23 mg/100 g), tocopherol (3.1 mg/100 g) and thiamine (53 pg/100 g) in amounts significantly lower to those of foods, which traditionally are sources of these vitamins. Based on the analysis of the mineral composition, the H. illucens biomass can be attributed to the sources of calcium, iron, copper and chromium. In terms of the content of the above elements, as well as magnesium and zinc, dry biomass significantly exceed the main food products of animal origin (beef, eggs, fish and seafood), and in terms of the content of potassium and phosphorus, it was comparable to them.
Conclusion. The results of dry larvae biomass comparative evaluation with the basic foodstuffs of animal and plant origin evidence to its high nutritional and biological value, allowing to consider H. illucens as a promising source of complete protein, lauric acid, minerals and trace elements.
Vitamin D status and calcium-phosphoric metabolism in children with excessive body weight and obesity
Obesity is a multifactorial disease, the prevalence of which has increased over the past few decades worldwide in all age groups. There is evidence of the pathogenetic role of vitamin D (VD) in the formation of obesity. However, there are few studies concerning the characteristics of calcium-phosphorus metabolism in obese children. Therefore, data on the prevalence of VD deficiency stratified by body mass index categories, characteristics of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and the relationship between the concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25(OH)D in obese children are of scientific and practical interest.
The aim of the study was to assess the VD status of children, to analyze the ratio of individual biochemical markers of bone metabolism [concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), PTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity] depending on body mass index (BMI).
Material and methods. The cross-sectional (one-stage) study included 77 children with different weight and height parameters at the age from 8 to 10 years. All children were divided into 3 groups: 1st - 26 children with normal body weight, 2nd - 29 children with overweight, 3rd - 22 people with obesity. All children underwent determination of the level of 25(OH)D, PTH, alkaline phosphatase, Ca, P in blood serum.
Results. Reduced VD supply occurred in all groups. However, children with normal BMI had a higher concentration of 25(OH)D - 32.65 [15.96; 44.4]ng/ml vs 23.6 [11.3; 34.54] ng/ml (p=0.001) in children with overweight and 12.51 [5.7; 19.1] ng/ml (p=0.014) in children with obesity (p<0.05). With an increase in BMI, a decrease in 25(OH)D level was noted (r=-0.480, p<0.05). Vitamin D deficiency in obese children (86.4%) occurred 2.3 fold more often than in overweight children (p=0.002), and 2.8 fold more often than in children with normal body weight (p=0.001). The concentration of PTH in all children was within the physiological norm, while there was a moderate negative correlation between the levels of PTH and 25(OH)D (r=-0.44, p<0.05). A moderate inverse correlation was also found between the concentration of PTH and total Ca (r=-0.38, p<0.05) and P (r=-0.44, p<0.05). With an increase in the BMI/age Z-score, a decrease in serum Ca level was observed (r=-0.497, p<0.05). The P content and ALP activity in blood serum were within the physiological norm in all children, however, in children with overweight and obesity, these indicators were statistically significantly lower than in healthy peers (p<0.05). Conclusion. In children with overweight and obesity, vitamin D deficit and insufficiency are recorded statistically significantly more often than in healthy children. With an increase in BMI, there is a tendency to a decrease in Ca, P and ALP.
Efficiency of vitamin D deficit correction depending on rats’ supply with B vitamins
Despite the presence of combined deficiency of vitamins D and group B among the population of Russia, the intake of cholecalciferol is often recommended without correcting the supply with B group vitamins, which are involved in ensuring the biological functions of vitamin D.
The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of vitamin D deficit correction by replenishing its content in the diet to an adequate level without eliminating the deficit of B vitamins and by restoring vitamin D level in combination with B vitamins. Material and methods. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats (n=33) with an initial body weight of 69.5±0.8 g. Combined deficit of vitamins D and B group in rats (n=24) was caused by a 5-fold decrease in their content in the vitamin mixture of a semi-synthetic diet for 23 days. Over the next 7 days, in order to correct vitamin deficiency, 12 rats (group «-B+D») were fed a diet, replenished up to 100% for vitamin D with continued deficiency of B group vitamins, and 12 rats (group «+B+D») were fed a diet replenished for all missing vitamins. Animals of the control group (n=9) received a full semi-synthetic diet during the entire experiment. The concentration of vitamins A and E in blood plasma and lyophilized liver and whole brain was determined by HPLC, vitamins B1 and B2 in the liver, brain and urine, riboflavin in plasma and 4-pyridoxic acid in urine - by fluorimetric methods, 25(OH)D in blood plasma was determined by ELISA. The content of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper in freeze-dried liver and brain was determined by atomic absorption method, biochemical parameters of blood and urine were determined using a biochemical analyzer.
Results. The only vitamin D addition to the feed with a persisting deficiency of B vitamins did not restore the concentration of 25(OH)D and osteocalcin to the level in control animals sufficiently provided with all vitamins. In animals of the “-B+D” group, 25(OH)D plasma level was reduced by 17.3% (p<0.10), osteocalcin - by 11.7% (p<0.05), the activity of aspartate aminotransferase was 1.5 fold less, alanine aminotransferase - 2.3 fold (p<0.05), lactate dehydrogenase - by 14.9% (p<0.10), while the concentration of iron exceeded2.7 times, glucose - by 15.0%, calcium - by 8.0%, creatinine - by 8.7% (p<0.05), urea - by 32.1%, direct bilirubin -by 24.2% (p<0.10 ) compared with corresponding indicator in rats of the control group. The level of cholesterol and HDL cholesterol was 14.7% and 15.9% higher (p<0.10) than in animals of the «+B+D» group.
Conclusions. Deficiency of B vitamins inhibits the restoration of adequate supply with vitamin D. In the presence of a lack of B vitamins in rats, vitamin D deficit and its consequences cannot be completely eliminated. Adequate supply with vitamins D and B group are synergistic factors in maintaining the level of glucose, cholesterol in blood plasma and other diagnostically significant parameters.
Specialized products for dietary correction of the diet of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a widespread disorder associated with a number of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity are currently a first-line treatment for the disease. However, there is lack of specialized products (SP) with modified carbohydrate and fat composition, containing biologically active ingredients with proven physiological effects on the liver for this disorder.
The aim of the paper is to summarize present knowledge on the biologically active ingredients with proven hepatoprotective effect and to describe the process of the development of two specialized products for clinical use in patients with NASH.
Material and methods. Food ingredients containing soy and milk proteins, soluble dietary fiber, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, soy lecithin, L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, α-lipoic acid, betaine, flavoring and aromatic additives were used in the development of SP formulations. The mass fraction of moisture in the SP was determined by the thermo-gravimetric method on a humidity analyzer, and the water activity was determined by measuring the dew point. The nutritional and energy value of the SP was calculated using data from chemical composition tables and information from manufacturers of food ingredients.
Results and discussion. Taking into account the requirements for dietary therapy, the ingredient composition was scientifically justified and the formulations of two SP with a balanced amino acid composition were developed by using a combination of milk whey proteins, casein and soy protein isolate. The fat component included microencapsulated rapeseed oil, that is a source of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with the addition of ω-3 PUFAs. The carbohydrate composition was modified by eliminating mono- and disaccharides, traditionally used in sweet drinks, and adding maltodextrin in combination with sweeteners (polyols and natural sweeteners). Polydextrose, citrus pectin, inulin, and hydrolyzed guar gum are used as soluble dietary fibers. The SP included essential micronutrients (vitamins, mineral substances) and bioactive substances that have a proven physiological effect (coenzyme Q10, α-lipoic acid, L-carnitine, betaine hydrochloride, phospholipids). Technical documentation was developed and a pilot batch of SP-1 was developed for inclusion in the complex treatment of patients with NASH.
Conclusion. The formulations and technology of SP (SP-1, SP-2) for therapeutic nutrition with a given chemical composition, designed to optimize the diet therapy of patients with NASH, have been developed. SP are sources of animal and vegetable proteins, soluble dietary fiber, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including ω-3 family, vitamins, minerals and trace elements, as well as bioactive substances with antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effect. The technical documentation was developed and approved, according to which a pilot batch of SP-1 was produced to assess its effectiveness as a part of complex therapy of patients with NASH.
Development of a daily diet for children with celiac disease in municipal pre-school educational institutions
Improving the quality of nutrition for children with gluten intolerance in preschool institutions is an important state task. Relevant adjustment of the diet enables to reduce the risk of the celiac syndrome. Balanced nutrient composition of diet is necessary for the harmonious growth and development of a child.
The aim of the research was to develop specialized diet for children with gluten intolerance and celiac desease in municipal preschool educational institutions.
Material and methods. A study of the 10-days full-day menu of children aged 3 to 7 years was carried out. To compose the specialized menu, we used the computational program “MDOU Calculate menu. Universal program for kindergarten”. Technological maps of dishes in municipal preschool educational institutions were used. The calculation of the supply of the diet with vitamins, minerals and trace elements and the deviation of the nutritional and energy value of the diet from the recommended daily intake was made.
Results. The necessity of developing a specialized diet for children 3-7 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease, as well as for children on a gluten-free diet has been substantiated. A specialized daily food ration has been developed, consisting of four meals. Analysis of the nutritional and energy value of the dishes offered in the menu showed the minimum deviation of the obtained indicators from recommended daily intake. The necessity of introducing the developed diet into the system of specialized nutrition in preschool educational institutions has been substantiated.
Conclusion. The results of the work indicate that under the conditions of state funding, there is a possibility of adjusting the existing food rations for the full-fledged socialization of children with various diseases.
Nutrients of fresh strawberries and products of its processing taking into account varietal characteristics
In the context of a deficiency of some essential nutrients in the diet of the majority of Russian population, studies aimed at evaluation of the accumulation of nutrients in plant foods that determine the nutritional value and contribute to the improvement of the nutritional structure of the human diet are relevant.
The aim of this work was to evaluate content of macro- and micronutrients that determine nutritional value in strawberries, taking into account varietal characteristics, and to assess its opportunity to improve the structure of human nutrition when eaten fresh and in processed products.
Material and methods. The study included 3 varieties of strawberries bred by the Institute and 10 varieties of foreign breeding of different ripening periods, which are most common in industrial plantings when cultivated in the south of Russia. When conducting a chemical-technological assessment of strawberries harvested over three years (2017—2019), the following was determined: soluble solids; organic acids, sugars, vitamin C, amino acid composition, mineral substances; catechins, polyphenols, anthocyanins, leuco-anthocyanins, pectin substances; aromatic substances, firmness of berry pulp.
Results. Strawberries of different varieties differ from each other not only in technical parameters (shape, size, color, hardness), but also in biochemical characteristics (content of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, etc.). Strawberries accumulate 7.8—11.0% soluble solids, 5.9—8.3% — sugars (which are mainly represented by glucose (2.16—2.92%) and fructose (2.29—2.98%); 0.6—0.8% — pectins; 0.8—1.5% — acids (mainly citric acid). Strawberries are a source of vitamin C, which content in the studied varieties ranged from 48.8 (Asia variety) up to 67.8 mg/100 g (Marmolada variety); catechins varied in the range 43.2—108.8 mg per 100 g, anthocyanins — 51.5—90.0 mg/100 g, leuco-anthocyanins — 92.3—166.1 mg/100 g. The mineral composition is characterized by a low content of minerals (in 100 g:potassium — 75.8—123.0 mg, calcium — 22.3—30.2 mg, magnesium — 6.3—10.3 mg) and a high accumulation of iron (0.85—1.34 mg/100 g). The presence of a complex of biologically active substances determines the demand for strawberries both for fresh consumption and as a raw material for many types of processing and freezing. As a result of the conducted studies of the chemical composition of strawberries, taking into account the technological requirements for this raw material (content of soluble solids, sugars, vitamins), the following varieties are recommended for processing: Marmolada, Molling Pandora, Florence, Elsanta, Tair. Berries of the following varieties are suitable for freezing: Marmolada, Alba, Arosa, Nelly, Onda, as the most fully preserving the original quality of berries, having a low juice yield and a high tasting rating.
Conclusion. On the basis of the comprehensive studies of the quality of berries, promising varieties of strawberries were identified for cultivation in the south of Russia, characterized by high nutritional value, excellent taste, usage in food consumption both fresh and frozen, as well as in the production of canned products, including obtaining foodstuffs for functional purposes.
Phthalate analysis in foods for young children using LC-MS method
Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid, which are persistent organic pollutants of the environment. Phthalates are widely used as plasticizing additives in the production of polymer products for industrial, domestic, food and medical purposes. The ubiquitous presence of phthalates is confirmed by the results of studies of environmental objects, drinking water, and foodstuffs. In connection with the adverse effects of phthalates on health, it is important to control their content in foodstuffs, including baby food, as one of the main sources of phthalates.
The aim of the research was to determine the phthalate content in baby food products (from 0 to 3 years) and to assess it from the hygienic point of view.
Material and methods. The results of the analysis of phthalates (C1-C8) in the dehydrated baby food products (milk porridge, dairy-free porridge, adapted milk formula, milk drink) by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) are presented.
Results. The presence of 7 phthalates out of 9 analyzed in the concentration range from 0.003 to 0.199 mg/kg was established. The priority contaminants were diethyl phthalate, determined at concentrations ranging from 0.046 to 0.199 mg/kg in 100% of samples, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, present in 75% of samples in concentrations ranging from 0.011 to 0.115 mg/kg. Dipropyl phthalate (0.004- 0.055 mg/kg) and dihexyl phthalate (0.006-0.062 mg/kg) were found in low concentrations in all samples. Dibutyl phthalate was found at the lower limit of determination - 0.005-0.007 mg/kg. The maximum phthalate content was established in milk and dairy-free porridges. Health risk assessment formed by phthalate intake from milk and dairy-free porridges, adapted milk formula and milk drink, when comparing the daily intake of individual phthalates with recommended reference doses for chronic per os intake, showed that no exceeding of permissible risk levels was found.
Conclusion. The maximum phthalate contamination is set for milk porridge and dairy-free porridge. The priority pollutants in the studied samples are diethyl phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. The danger coefficient calculated for each baby foodproduct, as well as hazard indices for the consumption of all products together, do not exceed the permissible values, which indicates an acceptable risk to public health.
Comparative evaluation of results of laboratory researches of milk in Kuzbass while carrying out control and surveillance measures for identifying false
Milk is one of the main products of the consumer basket, a source of nutrients, and has specific characteristics due to its chemical and microbiological composition. Falsification of dairy products against the background of an increase in production cost dictates the need for quality control and sanitary and epidemiological supervision in the framework of protecting consumer rights and human well-being.
The aim of the work is a comparative assessment of the results of laboratory studies of milk sold in retail of the Kemerovo Region (Kuzbass) during detection of falsification.
Material and methods. In this work, using capillary electrophoresis, chromatography, voltammetry, spectrophotometric and titrimetric methods, the organoleptic parameters, fatty acid composition of cow’s milk fat, mass fraction of fatty acid versus total fatty acids, the presence of vegetable fats in the fat phase, the ratio of the mass fractions of methyl fatty acid esters, acidity, mass fraction of dry skim milk residue (DSMR), density, phosphatase presence, mass fraction of fat, protein, purity group, presence of starch, soda, preservatives, the level of pesticides, aflatoxin M1, presence of antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline group), microbiological indicators (total plate count, colifoms, pathogenic microorganisms, including salmonella, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes). The objects of research were coded samples of drinking pasteurized milk with various fat content, manufactured by enterprises of the Kemerovo Region, Moscow Region, Kazakhstan, Altai Territory.
Results and discussion. In total, for 2017-2019, 258 samples of pasteurized drinking milk were studied, of which 11 samples did not meet the requirements of regulatory documents on physical-chemical and organoleptic quality indicators. In 11 rejected samples, the mass fraction of protein was underestimated by 25-50%, the DSMR by 8-13%, the density by 1-2%. In all inappropriate samples, deviations were established in the fatty acid composition of cow’s milk fat and the proportion of vegetable fats in the fat phase (the proportion of phytosterols in the total sterol content). Increased acidity was detected in 1 sample. For one sample, the excess of the permissible negative deviation of the net content from the nominal quantity was determined. Thus, over three years, the share of products that do not meet the requirements of regulatory documents in terms of quality indicators, identified during laboratory tests, amounted to 4.3%. There were no inconsistencies with the regulatory requirements regarding the presence of phosphatase, purity group, the presence of starch, soda and preservatives. According to safety indicators (content of toxic elements, pesticides; aflatoxin M1 mycotoxin; absence of antibiotics, microbiological indicators) it was found that all samples met the requirements of Technical Regulations of the Customs Union 021/2011 “On food safety”. Violation of the requirements for information on labeling was established for 15% of tested samples of dairy products.
Conclusion. According to the results of the control and supervision measures in 2017-2019, 11 milk samples were rejected. At the same time, inconsistencies regarding mandatory labeling requirements were detected in 15% of samples, exceeding permissible negative deviations from the nominal volume was found in 0.3% of samples. Non-compliance for a number of indicators (density, acidity, etc.) was found in 4.3% of samples. There were no inconsistencies with the requirements of Technical Regulations of the Customs Union 021/2011 “On food safety”.