Problems of Nutrition

scientific and practical journal

Included in the List of the leading peer-reviewed journals and publications recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC) of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for publication of the results of theses for the degree of candidate or doctor of science.

1 . 2024
Lead article

Key challenges in the dietary intake structure and cutting edge technologies for optimizing nutrition to protect the health of the Russian population


This article presents an analysis of some of the results of the work of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition and Biotechnology (Center) in recent years, highlighting the most important, promising areas of Nutrition Science and Food Hygiene that need further development.

The priority area of Center functioning is scientific support for the implementation of the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated January 21, 2020 No. 20), Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated July 21, 2020 No. 474 «On the national development goals of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030 «in terms of ensuring an increase in life expectancy and improving the life quality of the population, the Strategy for Improving the Quality of Food Products in the Russian Federation until 2030 (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation dated June 29, 2016 No. 1364-r).

The Center coordinates all research on medical nutrition problems in the Russian Federation within the framework of the work of the Problem Commission on Nutrition Hygiene of the Scientific Council of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on Medical Nutrition Problems, the Scientific and Technical Committee of the Comprehensive Scientific Program «Priority Research in the Field of Nutrition of the Population», Profile Commission on Dietetics of the Expert Council in the Field of Health of the Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, ensuring the implementation of their results with the participation of members of the Consortium “Healthcare, Nutrition, Demography”.

The most important area of the Center’s work is scientific and expert support in the field of international and national technical regulation of the production and turnover of foods and raw materials, in particular, the work of the Russian national contact point of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (established by FAO and WHO), as well as the work of the Russian side in the Eurasian Economic Commission regarding the preparation of proposals for technical regulations of the Customs Union in the field of food safety, evaluation of draft technical regulations and amendments and additions to them.


The role of microbiota and flavonoids in maintaining the balance of helper and regulatory T-lymphocytes associated with the intestinal immune barrier


The gastrointestinal tract is a barrier, represented by dynamic and mutually regulating components (microbial, chemical, physical and immune) for the selective penetration of luminal contents into the internal environment. From the point of view of immunologists, even in a physiological condition, the epithelium of the intestinal wall is in a state of mild inflammation, which is explained by the constant invasion of antigens (food, microbial) and, in turn, the constant readiness of the immune system to respond.

The purpose of this review was to analyze information about the formation of microbial and immunological barriers, immunological tolerance to microbiota and the possible role of flavonoids in this.

Material and methods. The literature search was carried out using PubMed, ResearchGate, Elibrary databases mainly for the last 10 years, using the following keywords: flavonoid, gut microbiome/microbiota, Th17, Treg, RORγt, immunity, segmented filamentous bacteria.

Results. During the immune response, a significant role in maintaining the intestinal barrier function is assigned to helper T lymphocytes type 17 (Th17). The intestinal microbiome is a key element in the formation of the immune barrier. Th17 differentiation in the intestine is fully triggered by commensals (apparently, the main role belongs to segmented filamentous bacteria) after weaning and the start of complementary feeding. Pro-inflammatory Th17 effectors in the gut are controlled by anti-inflammatory regulatory T-cells (Treg). In recent years, it has been established that despite the opposing functions of regulatory cells and effector Th17 cells, their differentiation is similar and is characterized by the expression of the common transcription factor RORγt. The main part of the peripheral regulatory lymphocytes of the intestine is a population that stably expresses not only FOXP3, but also RORγt. Flavonoids, which are plant secondary metabolites of the polyphenolic structure, are able to inhibit intracellular kinases and, as a result, influence the activation and implementation of effector functions of immunocompetent cells. Some flavonoids promote RORγt expression and appear to be able to reprogram the effector phenotype of Th17 cells, reducing their pathogenicity.

Conclusion. Understanding the interactions between the microbiota, immune cells, and factors involved in their regulation, which are critical for the maintenance of tolerance, may facilitate progress in the prevention and therapeutic approaches to treat immunoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids under the influence of various factors in healthy people and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are an important link in the maintenance and normalization of some important body functions. Recently, the metabolic component of the SCFAs effects has also been actively studied; the effect on body weight, insulin resistance and glycemia is of particular interest in the context of the prevention and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. In this regard, it is relevant to study the characteristics of SCFAs’ production in patients with impaired carbohydrate metabolism, mainly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

The purpose of the research was to study the modern data on the synthesis peculiarities of SCFAs in healthy people and patients with impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

Material and methods. The data of domestic and foreign literature presented in PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Elsevier, eLibrary, CyberLeninka databases, published mainly over the past 10 years, have been analyzed.

Results. According to the concept of the philometabolic nucleus, bacteria of certain species, which are of the greatest importance compared to the rest, are responsible for the synthesis of specific SCFAs. The gut microbiota (GM) has the property of plasticity – the ability to change its composition under the influence of various factors. Most studies describe the effect of GM and its metabolites on the carbohydrate metabolism, but an equally important aspect of this process is the effect of carbohydrate metabolism disorders on GM and its functional activity. In case of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, some altered components of homeostasis negatively affect GM and its production of SCFAs. As a result, the total amount and variety of SCFAs decrease, which exacerbate the imbalance in relation to carbohydrate metabolism. There is evidence that in patients with T2DM, the concentration of butyrate, which has a positive effect on insulin resistance, body weight, fasting glycemia and postprandial glycemia, decreases. The concentration of propionate and acetate, which didn’t show such a pronounced positive effect in studies on carbohydrate metabolism, on the contrary, increases.

Conclusion. The production of SCFAs by GM representatives depends on many factors, such as nutrition, physical activity, medication intake and the presence of chronic diseases. Numerous studies have confirmed the difference in the characteristics of the production of SCFAs in patients with T2DM and healthy people. The study of the peculiarities of GM metabolism in patients with T2DM is a tool in understanding the basics of therapy and lifestyle correction in both patients with T2DM and healthy people in order to prevent disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.

The role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the development of obesity. Modulation of enzyme activity by high fat diet and dietary fiber


Interest to the tissue-specific intestinal isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has increased in recent years due to eating disorders that have led to widespread obesity and diet-related diseases. Obesity is considered as an inflammation of low intensity, which is accompanied by the manifestation of various metabolic complications and a disturbance of intestinal homeostasis. IAP is one of the participants in the mechanism of the macroorganism protection against inflammatory and infectious processes, carrying out enzymatic detoxification of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (the trigger of the inflammatory process). Deficiency of IAP activity contributes to the risk of obesity, inflammatory diseases.

The objective of the research was to summarize the current understanding of the role of IAP involved in the molecular mechanism of diet-induced obesity and to evaluate the impact of dietary components – fats and dietary fiber on IAP activity.

Material and methods. A literature search on the role of IAP in the development of obesity was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, RSCI databases.

Results. IAP prevents the development of the inflammatory process by participating in the detoxification of toxic bacterial products, limiting the translocation of pathogenic bacteria from the intestine to various tissues and organs of the macroorganism. The enzyme maintains the integrity of the intestinal barrier, influencing the synthesis and proper localization of tight junction’s proteins between intestinal epithelial cells, promotes changes in the composition of the microbiota, decreasing pathogenic bacteria and increasing the population of the community of beneficial microorganisms. IAP is involved in the regulation of fatty acid absorption and influences on the adipogenesis. Monitoring the activity of IAP present in human stool can predict the early development of such complications associated with obesity as metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, Some nutrients modulate IAP activity. Depending on the amount, type, composition of fats and the duration of their consumption, either an increase or decrease in the IAP activity are observed, while dietary fibers stimulate the activity of the enzyme.

Conclusion. IAP activity can be considered as an early predictor of the risk of obesity. Deficiency of IAP activity contributes to the development of obesity caused by high-fat diet. The high activity of the enzyme contributes to the support of intestinal homeostasis and limits transepithelial movement of bacteria, weakening the inflammatory process induced by lipopolysaccharides, the excess concentration of which is detected in obesity. Stimulating enzyme activity through dietary intervention reduces the risk of obesity and metabolic complications.

Sweet protein brazzein as a promising sweetener

The excessive consumption of sugar-containing foods contributes to the development of a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, etc. As a substitute for sugar, people with diabetes mellitus and obesity most often use sweeteners. Sweet proteins, in particular brazzein, are an alternative to synthetic sweeteners that have natural origin, are broken down in the intestines along with food proteins, and do not affect blood sugar and insulin levels.
The purpose of the review was to analyze the available data on the sweet protein brazzein, its physical and chemical properties, existing biotechnological methods of production, and prospects for application in the food industry in order to further develop an optimized heterologous expression system.
Material and methods. Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, RSCI and databases were used for collecting and analyzing literature. Search depth – 30 years.
Results. Numerous studies of the physical and chemical properties of brazzein have demonstrated its high potential for use in the food industry. In particular, a short amino acid sequence, thermal stability, the ability to maintain its structure and sweet properties in a wide pH range, hypoallergenicity, lack of genotoxicity, and an extremely high level of sweetness compared to sucrose allow us to conclude that its use is promising. Mutant variants of brazzein have been generated, the sweetest of which (with three amino acid substitutions H31R/E36D/E41A) exceeds sucrose sweetness by 22 500 times. To date, various systems for the expression of recombinant brazzein have already been developed, in which bacteria (Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus licheniformis), yeast (Komagataella phaffii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), plants (Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Lactuca sativa, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota) and animals (Mus musculus) have been used.
Conclusion. Due to its high sweetness, organoleptic properties and long history of human consumption, brazzein can be considered as a promising natural sweetener. Despite the short peptide sequence, the production of the recombinant protein faced a number of problems, including low protein yield (for example, it could only be detected in mouse milk by Western blot hybridization) and loss of sweetness. Thus, further optimization of the process is necessary for widespread brazzein use in the food industry, which includes the selection of an adequate producer and the use of extracellular expression systems to reduce the final cost of the product.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Influence of the rat diet enrichment with oat β-gucans on the assimilation of B group vitamins, mineral elements and lipid metabolism


Despite the widespread use of oat β-glucans as ingredient of foods and dietary supplements, there is insufficient data on their effect on the metabolism of vitamins and minerals.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of including oat bran with a high content of β-glucans (β-glucan) in the diet on the absorption of micronutrients and lipid metabolism in growing rats deficient in vitamins D, group B and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc).

Material and methods. After the development of micronutrient deficiency (for 23 days), in order to assess the effect of oat bran (5%) with a high content of β-glucans on the correction of the micronutrient status of growing male Wistar rats (with initial body weight of 70.7±0.7 g), the missing micronutrients were introduced in the semi-synthetic diet deficient in vitamins D, group B, iron, copper and zinc within 7 days either along with β-glucan (1.47%) or without its addition. Indicators of micronutrient sufficiency (riboflavin serum concentration, daily urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid, measured by fluorometric methods; serum concentration and urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, measured by the atomic absorption method or using standard methods on a biochemical analyzer) and the biochemical parameters of blood serum were compared with the parameters of rats adequately provided with all micronutrients throughout the experiment.

Results. Replenishment of missing micronutrients in the diet of rats with deficiency in vitamins D and group B, iron, copper and zinc for 7 days led to the elimination of deficiency of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, regardless of the presence of β-glucans in the diet. At the same time, against the background of the presence of β-glucans in the feed, an increase in the absorption of iron was observed, as evidenced by an increase by 1.73 times in iron blood plasma level (р<0.05) and a tendency towards its urinary excretion decrease by 1.60 fold (р<0.10) compared to animals from the control group. Adding oat bran with β-glucans to the feed did not lead to a decrease in blood plasma level of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in rats of all three groups did not have statistically significant differences.

Conclusion. The presence of β-glucans in the diet had virtually no effect on the absorption of B vitamins and improved the absorption of iron.

Physiological and biochemical in vivo study of polyphenols and 20-hydroxyecdisone from quinoa grains effect on resistance to physical exercise in Wistar rats


Increasing the ability of the human body to adapt to physical stress is relevant from the standpoint of using foods for special uses containing functional food ingredients (FFI) with effectiveness proven in vivo.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of FFI from Chenopodium quinoa grains with a high content of polyphenols and phytoecdysteroids on the physical endurance of male Wistar rats.

Material and methods. The experiment was carried out during 36 days using 50 weaned male Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=12): Control, Run and Run–FFI. Rats of the Control and Run groups received a standard semi-synthetic diet during the experiment. Rats of the Run–FFI group received a semi-synthetic diet with the addition of FFI in an amount of 0.055±0.003%, containing phytoecdysteroids (50.4±0.6 mg/g) and polyphenols (212.0±2.0 mg/g). During the experiment, the rats were assessed for their neuromotor function (grip strength of front paws), memory, and behavioral reactions in the “Elevated Plus Maze” (EPM), “Conditioned Passive Avoidance Reflex” (CPAR) and “Open Field” (OF) tests. Once a week, animals from the Run and Run–FFI groups were subjected to moderate physical load on a “Treadmill”. On the 36th day of the experiment, the animals of these groups were subjected to exhausting physical load. Immediately after running, the animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect daily urine. At the end of the experiment, the content of corticosterone, the activity of catalase, indicators of protein, lipid and mineral metabolism, indexes of the liver functional state and antioxidant defense system parameters were analyzed in the blood serum; the level of prostaglandin E2 and dopamine were determined in daily urine.

Results. Physiological tests (CRAR, OF) showed that weekly exercise increased anxiety in laboratory animals. The FFI introduction into the diet led to normalization of the assessed parameters (EPM). As a result of 36-day consumption of FFI against the background of physical loads, a significant decrease by 22% in the main stress marker, corticosterone, was revealed in the blood of rats, as well as significant increase by 23% in the stress inhibitor – prostaglandin E2 urinary excretion, compared with animals of the Run group to the level not differed from the indicators of the control animals. There were no differences in endurance performance between the Run and Run–FFI groups on the results of the exhaustive exercise. Consumption of FFI prevented the formation of excess ammonia, significantly reducing the level of urea in the blood and normalizing its excretion to control levels in the urine, which was increased in the Run group by 19%.

Conclusion. The results obtained demonstrated the adaptogenic properties of the developed FFI in response to stress caused by weekly moderate and acute exhaustive physical activity. The obtained data on the biological effect of the developed FPI on the adaptive potential of laboratory animals will serve as an experimental basis for its inclusion in the composition of specialized foods.

Influence of chronic immobilization stress on vitamin status in rats fed different diets


The influence of a stress factor, widespread in modern conditions, on the vitamin status has not been studied enough. At the same time, the negative stress impact can be aggravated against the background of unhealthy nutrition, which in turn affects the vitamin status of the organism.

In this regard, the goal of the research was to evaluate the effect of chronic restrict stress on the vitamin supply in rats fed a diet with adequate and increased content of fat, sugar and cholesterol.

Material and methods. The experiment was carried out on 37 growing male Wistar rats (initial body weight of 45±5 g) divided into 4 groups. Animals of the 1st (control) and the 2nd groups received a complete semi-synthetic diet (CSSD) (20% protein, 10% fat, 58% carbohydrates in the form of starch, 384 kcal/100 g) for 92 days. The levels of all vitamins and mineral elements in the rats’ diets were adequate for growing rats. Rats of the 3rd and the 4th groups were fed a high-calorie, high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (HFHCD) (20% protein, 28% fat, 2% cholesterol, 18% carbohydrates in the form of starch, 20% sucrose, 511 kcal/100 g). Animals of groups 2 and 4 were subjected to daily 90-minute immobilization. The concentration of vitamins A (retinol and retinol palmitate) and E (α-tocopherol) in the blood serum and liver were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, vitamins B1 and B2 in the liver and urine, as well as riboflavin in the blood serum and 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) in urine were determined by fluorimetric methods. Biochemical parameters of blood serum were determined on a biochemical analyzer; the total content of fat, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol (CH) was determined in the liver.

Results. Replacing CSSD with HFHCD, both under restraint stress and without, was accompanied by an increase in liver weight by 1.8–2.0 fold, in its fat content by 2.6–3.3 fold, cholesterol by 32.6–35.3 fold and TG – by 33.0–57.6 fold (p≤0.001). An increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity by 1.7–2.0 fold (p≤0.01), in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level by 5.4 fold (p≤0.05) and the atherogenic coefficient by 2.5 fold (p<0.01) as well as a decrease in creatinine and urea level (p≤0.05) in blood serum were revealed. Immobilization was accompanied by a decrease in body weight, liver and liver fat in rats fed both CSSD and HFHCD (p<0.05), but didn’t affect the blood serum biochemical parameters, with the exception of an increase in ALT activity. If the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) did not change during immobilization of rats fed the CSSD, then in animals fed the high-calorie diet it decreased by 37.5% (p≤0.05 from the control) under its increase against the background of restrict stress by 78.7% (p≤0.01) compared to the indicator of rats of the 3rd group. Immobilization of rats treated with CSSD was accompanied by an increase in both absolute serum α-tocopherol level and concentration correlated with the level of cholesterol and triglycerides by 26.0–57.5% (p<0.05), with a simultaneous decrease in its content in the liver per 1 g of wet tissue by 22.1% (p=0.041) relative to the indicators of intact animals. Immobilization reduced the level of retinol palmitate in the liver by 2.3 times (p<0.01), but did not affect retinol level in the blood serum. At the same time, indicators of B vitamin status (the content of vitamins B1 and B2 in the liver per 1 g of wet tissue and per organ, blood serum riboflavin level, urinary excretion of riboflavin and 4-PA) did not change, with the exception of thiamine urinary excretion, which reduced compared to the control by 38.8%. In rats fed HFHCD, immobilization had no additional effect on the supply with vitamins A and E. The content of vitamins B1 and B2 in the liver in terms of the whole organ was reduced by 14.0–26.7% relative to the indicator in animals of the 3rd group, not subjected to chronic stress, only due to differences in liver weight in animals of these groups.

Conclusion. The data obtained indicate that chronic stress has a negative effect on the vitamin status of the body, worsening the supply with vitamins A, E and B1, and substantiate the feasibility of studying the mechanisms of this effect in order to develop effective vitamin complexes for the treatment and prevention of diseases caused by long-term stress.

Hygiene of nutrition

Alternaria toxins in tomato products marketed in the Russian Federation


Tomatoes and tomato products are widely produced and consumed throughout the world. Alternaria spp. are the main cause of alternariosis (black mold disease) on fresh tomatoes, both in the field and after harvesting. Alternaria toxins are widespread contaminants of tomato products.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contamination of tomato processing products from the domestic market with Alternaria toxins, as well as to assess their intake by humans through the consumption of tomato juices.

Material and methods. The content of Alternaria toxins (alternatiol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, tentoxin, tenuazonic acid) was determined in 64 samples of tomato products (paste, ketchup, juice) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass-spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS/MS).

Results. The priority Alternaria toxins for tomato paste, ketchup and juice were tenuazonic acid (61% of 64 samples, in amounts from 20.0 to 1065.5 μg/kg), altenuene (52%, 8.9–200.1 μg/kg) and alternariol (27%, 12.2–561.6 μg/kg). Samples of tomato paste turned out to be the most contaminated with Alternaria toxins while tomato juice samples were the least contaminated. At the same time, several toxins were found in 91% of tomato paste samples, 35% of ketchups, and 23% of tomato juices.

Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first survey devoted to Alternaria toxins contamination of tomato paste, ketchup and tomato juice sold on the Russian market. The high frequency of their contamination with tenuazonic acid, altenuene and, to a lesser extent, alternariol has been established, which indicates a potential risk to human health when tomato processing products are consumed. This indicates the need for a hygienic assessment of contamination the above products with tenuazonic acid, altenuene and alternariol. When calculating the potential intakeof Alternaria toxins for different age population groups, it was shown that high levels of alternariol (up to 56.77 ng/kg body weight per day) could be obtained under daily consumption of tomato juice by adults and children under three years of age, as well as tenuazonic acid when consuming tomato juice contaminated at the 95th percentile level as part of the diet in organized groups for orphans and children without parental care.

Features of the eating behavior of patients who consider themselves healthy


Non-communicable diseases have become one of the causes of premature mortality among the able-bodied population. The risk factors these diseases are individual characteristics of the diet and nutritional regimen. Their timely detection and correction are necessary for the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases.

The purpose of the study was to determine the features of the structure of the actual consumption of the main food groups and the eating behavior of outpatients who are subject to periodic medical examinations and consider themselves healthy.

Material and methods. The observational stratified study has been conducted. Сlinical data, data on physical activity (International Questionnaire on Physical Activity) were collected, an analysis of actual food consumption was carried out (using the Nutri-Prof software package) detailing individual nutrition in 228 outpatients (122 men and 106 women aged 18 to 72 years).

Results. The eating behavior of patients who consider themselves healthy was often characterized by a lack of regularity of meals and an imbalance in the composition of the diet. The need for its correction was determined in 183 (80.3%) patients. The majority of patients revealed the following motives for an unhealthy eating style: “there are no reasons preventing a healthy diet” and “I am quite healthy, I can afford not to follow the rules of a healthy diet”, every fifth patient has “the lack of a supportive person in creating a proper diet”. Among men, higher consumption of meat products, eggs, bakery, potatoes, added sugar and added salt was significantly more common (p<0.05); in the diet of women there was a significantly higher level of dairy products, vegetable oil and vegetables was significantly (p<0.01). With high physical activity, a tendency was found to consume foods in accordance with modern criteria of a healthy diet, and with low physical activity, patients did not comply with the norms of a healthy diet. They consumed less fish products, vegetables, fruits, vegetable oils (p<0.01) and eggs (p<0.05), more bakery (p<0.05) with more pronounced excess intake of added sugar (p>0.05) and salt (p<0.05).

Conclusion. Dietary pattern of patients who consider themselves healthy, developed during their lifetime, requires its correction by an outpatient physician within the framework of therapeutic and preventive consultations.


Estimation of gamma-aminobutyric acid intake from the human diet


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous bioactive compound with essential properties for the normal functioning of the human nervous system. As a potent neurotransmitter, it plays an important role in modulating synaptic transmission by exerting phasic inhibition of neurons. This and other effects of GABA provide the phenomenon of neural tissue plasticity underlying learning, memory, maturation and repair of neural tissue after damage. It also has a wide range of biological actions, including antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. In this regard, GABA is increasingly used in the composition of food for special dietary uses and dietary supplements. However, its adequate intake levels have not yet been assessed and its dietary intake has not been characterized.

The aim of the review was to estimate the level of GABA intake under balanced consumption of foods, corresponding to rational norms that meet modern requirements of a healthy diet.

Material and methods. The existing literature on the problem in recent years was reviewed using the databases RISC, CyberLeninka, Pubmed, and ResearchGate.

Results. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, we evaluated the content of GABA in the average daily diet, compiled on the basis of the rational norms of food consumption that meet modern requirements for healthy nutrition (Order of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation dated August 19, 2016. No. 614). The balanced diet can provide about 740 mg of GABA per day, mainly due to vegetables (potatoes – 419 mg/day, beet – 49 mg/day, pumpkin – 41 mg/day), fruits (apple – 15 mg/day, grapes – 3.8 mg/day), as well as low-fat dairy products (92 mg/day).

Conclusion. The presented data may be useful in assessing the adequacy of enrichment of foods for special dietary uses and dietary supplements with GABA.

Study of composite mixtures based on durum wheat semolina and white beans flour for pasta production as specialized food products


Increasing the number of chronic non-communicable diseases around the world is a critical social problem in many countries. In this regard, the creation of specialized foods that correct dysfunctions of the human body is a priority direction in science and food industry. Legumes are characterized by a high content of protein, minerals and trace elements, which determines their possible use as the main raw materials for creating specialized foods.

The aim of this research was to present a medical, biological and technological justification for the possibility of producing pasta based on composite mixtures of durum wheat semolina and white bean flour as specialized foods with increased protein content and optimal mineral ratio.

Material and methods. The objects of the study were grains of durum wheat (grade Krasnokutka-13), whole meal flour from white beans, composite mixtures in various percentages, and pasta from them. The nutritional and biological value of durum wheat semolina and bean flour was determined experimentally, the nutrient profile of the developed composite mixtures – by calculation. The rheological properties of dough from composite mixtures and the cooking properties of pasta made from them were assessed.

Results. It has been established that increase in the proportion of white bean flour in composite mixes elevated calcium and protein content, optimized an amino acid profile, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus, significantly reduced the glycemic load. Bean flour introduction into composite mixtures positively affected the rheological properties of the dough and products from it, in particular, on the speed and energy intensity of dough kneading and aging processes of starched polysaccharides, however, lead to a decrease in dry pasta strength. The pasta made from composite mixtures meets the technological requirements for pasta in terms of a number of basic indicators, namely: the volume of dry pasta, the volume of pasta after cooking and the boilability coefficient.

Conclusion. The rheological and technological properties of composite mixtures and their nutrient profile make it possible to recommend them for the production of pasta, as specialized foods.


Tamara S. Popova (18.06.1941–01.01.2024)


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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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