Вопросы питания № 1 2021

Problems of Nutrition

scientific and practical journal

Included in the List of the leading peer-reviewed journals and publications recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC) of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for publication of the results of theses for the degree of candidate or doctor of science.

1 . 2021

Role of vitamin D in women's reproductive health


Vitamin D with its steroid structure is currently considered as a hormone. New target cells of this hormone have been identified, including those in the organs of the reproductive system.

The aim - to analyze modern sources of domestic and foreign scientific literature covering the role of vitamin D in the reproductive health of women of different ages.

Results. The Russian Federation is endemic in terms of vitamin D deficiency. According to statistics, a lack of this vitamin is observed in 70-90% of the population of the USA and European countries, which brings this problem to the international level. It has been established that vitamin D affects not only bone-mineral homeostasis, but also many organs and tissues, including the reproductive system, namely the ovaries, uterus, placental tissue, pituitary gland and male reproductive organs. Studies have proven the positive effect of this hormone on the course of polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, diabetes mellitus (including gestational). In addition, it has been shown that vitamin D is an important micronutrient during pregravid preparation, and the normalization of its level can improve the quality and increase the life expectancy of women after 50-60 years.

Conclusion. Vitamin D plays an important role in many physiological processes, including the effects on the organs of the reproductive system. The significant influence of this vitamin can be traced from the beginning of intrauterine development to the end of life, which makes its further study an important area of modern medicine, including within the framework of obstetrics and gynecology.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Influence of the L-carnitine and resveratrol complex on physiological, biochemical and morphological indicators of normal and obese rats


Specialized products and dietary supplements, enriched with complexes of minor biologically active substances (BAS), are often offered as components of therapeutic diets in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. At the same time, the possible effects of the interactions of BAS when consuming a multicomponent product have not been studied enough.

The aim - to study the action on rats’ organism of a complex supplement (КС), containing resveratrol (Res) and L-carnitine (L-Car), when consumed with a standard balanced or hypercaloric diet.

Material and methods. Male Wistar rats received for 63 days a standard balanced diet (SD) or a high-fat-high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) with an excess of total fat (30%) and fructose (20% solution instead of drinking water), or the same diets supplemented with КС in a low (25 mg/kg body weight as Res and 300 mg/kg body weight as L-Car) or high (50 and 600 mg/kg body weight, respectively) doses. The muscle grip strength, behavioral reactions in tests of the conditioned passive avoidance reflex (CPAR) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were studied. At the end of the experiment, the mass of adipose tissue and internal organs was determined together with the activity of microsomal and cytosolic liver enzymes for specific substrates, plasma biochemical parameters, liver morphology by light-optical microscopy, accumulation of lipofuscin-like granules (LLG) in the liver and kidneys by laser confocal microscopy.

Results. In the rats fed HFCD, compared with SD, there was an increase in the mass index of liver, total inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue, in the levels of glucose and triglycerides, in the activity of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP3A monooxygenases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, heme oxygenase, and simultaneous decrease of high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and quinone oxidoreductase activity. The КС intake stimulated the locomotor activity of rats in EPM, however, this effect was less pronounced against the background of HFCD consumption. In rats consuming SD (but not HFCD), the addition of КС caused an increase in search activity and anxiety according to the EPM and CPAR data. The effect on short- and long-term memory retention was statistically insignificant. RС intake did not have hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties but caused in low dose an increase in the ratio of the activity of transaminases AST/ALT in animals fed HFCD. The liver CYP3A activity increased in rats supplemented with RС in high dose fed HFCD. In the kidneys of animals, the consumption of RС resulted in increased accumulation of LLG.

Conclusion. When studying the effect of the complex supplement RС on normal and obese rats according to the studied physiological, morphological and biochemical indexes, no positive effects were revealed, that would not have manifested themselves for Res and L-Car separate intake. No evidence of synergistic action of L-Car and Res were found, and some of the effects of the complex supplement can be considered as adverse. This requires careful assessment when combined using these substances in complex diet therapy of metabolic disorders in humans.

Hygiene of nutrition

Dried fruits marketed in Russia: multi-mycotoxin contamination


Mycotoxins (MT) - secondary metabolites of micromycetes - are natural contaminants of plant products. Fruits are particularly susceptible to fungal contamination and MT accumulation due to high sugar content. It can occur at any production stage: during vegetation, drying and storage. The most hazardous MT - aflatoxins (AFLs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) - are regulated in dried fruits in some countries. However, their maximum levels (ML) were not set in Russia yet.

The present research was aimed at the evaluation of MT contamination of dried fruits marketed in Russia.

Material and methods. 54 samples of dried dates (n=11), apricots (n=9), raisins (n=9), prunes (n=7), figs (n=6), apples (n=3) and mixtures for compote (n=9) were analyzed for 32 MTs by HPLC-MS/MS with positive/negative ESI in the MRM mode.

Results. OTA and fumonisins (FBs) were the major regulated contaminants, their occurrence proved to be 10 and 17% correspondingly. Emergent metabolites of Fusarium spp. enniatin A (ENN A, 22%) and beauvericin (BEA, 15%); Penicillium spp. mycophenolic and cyclopiazonic acids (MPA and CPA, about 19%); Alternaria spp. tentoxin (TE, 17%) were detected also. Two-thirds of positive samples were contaminated with two and more MTs. All studied samples could be referred as safe within the EU regulations.

Conclusion. Some kinds of dry fruits proved to be susceptible to contamination with particular MTs. Characteristic pattern for raisin was the OTA and MPA combination, for figs - FBs and CPA. According to literature data concerning occurrence and safety of MTs and the results of our survey, the long-term monitoring of AFLs and OTA in dry fruits and AFLs, OTA, FBs and CPA in figs from different regions of Russia is necessary to assess the need for setting of MLs of these MTs.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Metabolic characteristics, nutritional status and behavior factors in people with obesity, working at industrial plant


An obesity is the topical problem worldwide, because excessive weight is the reason of metabolic changes that lead to development of serious chronic non-communicable diseases.

The examination was aimed to assess clinical and metabolic health, nutritional status and behavior risk factors of obesity in people, working at the industrial plant.

Material and methods. In 348 workers of the industrial plant (210 males, 138 females) examination was performed including anthropometry: body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences and their ratio, blood pressure level detection, laboratory blood tests (glucose and cholesterol levels), and questionnaire on nutritional habits and physical activity. All examined were divided in three groups depending on BMI: 1st group -151 (43.3%) persons with normal body mass, 2ndgroup - 125 (36%) working people with overweight and3rdgroup - 72 (20.7%) people with obesity.

Results. More than half of examined workers (mostly females) had overweight or obesity with predominantly abdominal type of fat distribution and I degree. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 41% of all working people (predominantly I degree), more frequently observed in obese (62.5%) and in males (45%). Each fourth man and woman had elevated total cholesterol level, which increased depending on BMI raise. Postprandial hyperglycemia was observed in 5.5% of cases, with the same frequency in both genders, predominantly in obesity. A significant part of responded with obesity, especially females, confirmed, that the reasons of excessive weight were stresses and somatic diseases (37%), and they preferred chocolate from confectionery. It was noted a correlation of BMI with egg consumption in males and with the consumption frequency of nuts, seeds and chocolate in females. Physical activity less than 3 times a month or never was observed in most of responded workers with overweight and obesity (73%), especially in males, as well as in females during the last month before the survey (57%).

Conclusion. Preventive examination detected not only high prevalence of abdominal obesity, arterial hypertension and fat metabolism disturbances in people, working at the industrial plant, but also allowed to detect the most significant alimentary and behavioral risk factors of obesity.

Micronutrients in nutrition

Modeling of iodine consumption with industrial processed foods made with iodized salt in the adults and pregnant in Armenia and Moldova


In recent years, significant progress has been made at the global level in eliminating of iodine deficiency. However, until recently, there has been a gap in methods for estimating iodine intake with industrially processed foods (IPF) produced with iodized salt (IS).

The aim of this work was to study the iodine consumption with IPF and kitchen salt by the adult population and pregnant women in Armenia and Moldova.

Material and methods. For modeling iodine consumption, a special matrix based on MS Excel spreadsheets was used, into which data on the average per capita daily consumption of the main IPF, salt content in IPF, the share of IPF produced with IS in the total volume of their consumption, percentage of households using IS, and the iodine content in salt according to the national standard were entered.

Results and discussion. The estimated average daily salt consumption per capita of the adult population of Armenia was 10.6 g. Due to the use of IS in 93% of households and in the production of 82% of bakery products, 7% of cheese, 83% of meat products, 44% of canned vegetables and 5% of pasta, iodine intake in adults was 149% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Bakery products and iodized kitchen salt were the main sources of iodine (66 and 70% of the RDA respectively), and the share of other IPF did not exceed 13%. In Moldova, salt consumption was 11.9 gper day. Due to the use of IS for the production of 50% bakery products, 12% of canned vegetables and 20% of pasta, iodine consumption in adults in Moldova amounted to 74% of RDA almost entirely due to bakery products and kitchen salt (37 and 35% of the RDA respectively). The median urinary iodine concentration indicated adequate iodine intake in both countries and was significantly higher in Armenia (242yg/L) than in Moldova (136 yg/L). A planned 30% reduction in salt intake may lead to an inadequate reduction in iodine intake in pregnant women.

Conclusion. Adequate iodine intake among the adult population of Armenia and Moldova is ensured mainly through the use of IS in households and in the production of bakery products.

Vitamin D deficiency and carbohydrate metabolism in obese children and adolescents


Obesity in childhood and adolescence is an important clinical and social problem in all countries, due to its extremely adverse long-term health effects. Vitamin D deficiency is extremely widespread in the world. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are often associated with vitamin D deficit. The role of vitamin D deficiency in obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood is not well understood.

Aims - to study the relationship of vitamin D deficiency and carbohydrate metabolism parameters in school children with obesity.

Material and methods. The cross-sectional study included 71 patients of the Arkhangelsk Children’s Clinical Hospital named after P.G. Vyhletsova (32 boys, 39 girls, aged 10 to 15 years, all children live in Arkhangelsk) with abdominal obesity. An anthropometric study was conducted: height (cm), body weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), body mass index (BMI). Serum 25(OH)D level, fastingglycemia, insulin level and HOMA-IR index were assessed.

Results. It has been revealed that 98,6% of children have vitamin D deficiency of varying severity. 25(OH)D level in severely obese children (BMI>3SDS) was significantly lower than in other obese children (BMI<3SDS): 12.8 [7.3-14.9] vs 13.5 [8.9-18.2] ng/ml, (p=0.039). In children with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower compared with those who had normal glycemic parameters and HOMA-IR index.

Conclusions. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity, progressing with increasing obesity severity, has been demonstrated. The association of glucose metabolism disorders with vitamin D deficiency has been shown.

Curcumin in the correction of oxidative and immune disorders during exercises


Oxidative and immune dysfunctions during physical exertion can be associated with a violation of enzyme systems and antioxidant protection, the state of innate and adaptive immunity. This creates the preconditions for their pharmacological correction.

The aim of this review is to summarize and analyze modern data on the role of curcumin, one of the components of the extract of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa), in the correction of oxidative stress and immune disorders during physical exertion.

Material and methods. When writing the review, a search has been carried out for the original articles presented in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar databases, eLIBRARY.RU and CyberLeninka platforms, with a randomized controlled crossover or parallel design, in which the use of curcumin administered before and/ or after exercise was compared with placebo. No filters were applied by type of exercise performed, gender or age of participants.

Results. In randomized controlled trials conducted for 2008-2020, evidences were obtained that the use of complexes containing curcumin normalizes the general antioxidant status, restores quality, quantity and functional-metabolic status of immunocytes. Data from prospective epidemiological studies show that turmeric extract exhibits partial anti-inflammatory, immunotropic and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, which provides a basis for further studies on the effectiveness and systemic use of turmeric long.

Conclusion. The inclusion of turmeric extract in complex dietary regimens, including during physical activity, helps to prevent immune and oxidative disorders, and exert some anti-inflammatory effect.

Dihydroquercetin influence on clinical and biochemical blood parameters of pigs under conditions of stress load


In modern society, distress has become a widespread condition that negatively affects the functioning of all systems of the human organism. The study of biological mechanisms and changes in the organism under the influence of stress, as well as methods of their leveling, are relevant in medicine, animal science and veterinary medicine. Pigs are an excellent biological model that is closest to humans.

The aim of the research was to study the hematological and biochemical parameters of pigs out of and under stress, including against the background of daily consumption of the flavonoid dihydroquercetin (DHQ) with feed.

Material and methods. The research was conducted in the experimental yard of the L.K. Ernst Federal Science Center for Animal Husbandry on 3 groups of pigs [F2 hybrid (large whitexLandrace) x Duroc] with an initial body weight of 30-35 kg (n=27). Group 1K consisted of control animals not exposed to stress (n=9); group 2K - control animals subjected to simulated stress by the rearrangement of animals (n=9); group 3O - experimental animals subjected to simulated stress and fed throughout the entire experiment DHQ (32 mg per 1 kg of feed) (n=9). On days 0, 42, and 76, blood was collected from the animals and their hematological and biochemical parameters were studied using conventional methods.

Results. The positive effect of using DHQ in pigs’ nutrition on enhancing the oxidizing function of blood, metabolic intensity, and increasing the endurance of animals under stress conditions has been manifested in maintaining leukocyte level with a higher content of erythrocytes and hematocrit. In animals fed DHQ, alanine aminotransferase activity was lower than in animals not receiving DHQ. Stress led to a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in group 2K on the 46th day, which was not observed in animals treated with DHQ.

Conclusion. Long-term intake DHQ (up to 72 days inclusive) against the background of stress contributed to the preservation of blood values at the control level (without stress), within the physiological norm.

Diet treatment

Optimization of dietary support for patients with diabetic nephropathy


The article presents modern approaches to dietary support for patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). The possibility of using the developed specialized products (SP), modified by protein, fat and carbohydrate composition, containing food ingredients with hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects is presented.

The aim - development of a formulation and technology for producing SP with modified chemical composition and energy value, intended for inclusion in a low-protein diet for patients with DN.

Material and methods. When developing the SP formulation, soy protein isolate, mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids, soluble dietary fiber, fat- and water-soluble vitamins, tracelements, curcumin, taurine, flavoring and aromatic additives were used.

Results. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of two SPs have been determined. A technology has been developed for producing SP in the form of instant drinks, which consists in stage-by-stage mixing of prescription ingredients, which ensures uniform distribution of minor biologically active substances. The conducted studies of the organoleptic parameters of the developed SPs showed an average overall score of 4.8 and 4.9 on a 5-point scale.

Conclusion. Taking into account the technological and organoleptic compatibility of the selected ingredients, formulations and technologies for preparing SP have been developed, which are powdery multicomponent mixtures for preparing drinks for use in the complex therapy of patients with DN.

Nutrition of sportsmеn

Metabolic estimation of efficiency of vitamin and mineral complexes in qualified athletes


In professional athletes who adapt to intense physical training and psycho-emotional stress, the formation of oxidative stress is shown. This fact determines the expediency of targeted correction of disorders of the balance of pro - and antioxidant systems in blood and tissues caused by intense physical training.

The aim of the work was to study the effect of vitamin-mineral complex on the parameters of oxidative blood metabolism in professional athletes.

Material and methods. The prospective study included 74 professional athletes representing cyclic sports and randomized into 2 groups: the main group (n=42), who personalized received one of two vitamin-mineral complexes (with different concentrations of antioxidants), and a control group (n=32), who received a placebo. The duration of the course of daily intake of vitamin-mineral complex, an additional source of vitamins C, E, A, D, group B, minerals and trace elements, a source of β-carotene (1.5 mg), lutein (4.5 mg) and L-carnitine, was 30 days. The parameters of oxidative metabolism of blood (the level of 8-isoprostan, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, superoxide dismutase activity, the concentration of carotenes, tocopherols, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) were studied in the athletes of both groups before and after the course of intake, and in the main group these results were used to individualize the metabolic correction.

Results. After completing the course of metabolic support, an increase in the concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin (1.26 fold), α- and β-carotene (1.21 and 1.17 fold, respectively), α- and γ-tocopherol (1.46 and 1.62 fold), and the coefficient vitamin E/cholesterol (1.18 fold) have been demonstrated in athletes. In addition, activation of superoxide dismutase (1.24 fold) and a decrease in the level of 8-isoprostane (1.49 fold) have been recorded. No such changes have been observed in the athletes included in the control group.

Conclusion. It was found that the course of metabolic support, including the use of individually prescribed vitamin-mineral complex, allowed to optimize the state of oxidative metabolism of athletes blood plasma.

Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Selenium content in gluten-free products


Special diets are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases of the digestive system, taking into account individual food intolerance and possible allergic reactions. The monotony of the diet due to the limited range of recommended foods and dishes negatively affects both the effectiveness of the treatment of gluten intolerance, and the provision of the body with essential and replaceable nutrients.

The aim of this study was to determine the selenium content in the flour of gluten-free crops (rice, corn, buckwheat and amaranth), their mixtures, as well as in dishes (pancakes) from a mixture of amaranth and buckwheat flours.

Material and methods. The following raw materials were used in the study: amaranth flour, unboiled buckwheat groats, whole grain rice flour and corn flour. By mixing the components in a laboratory mixer, dry gluten-free compositions were obtained: a mixture of amaranth flour and flour from native buckwheat; a mixture of amaranth and rice flour and a mixture of amaranth and corn flour in the ratio of 1:2 and 1:1; and a mixture of amaranth, buckwheat and corn flour in equal proportions. In laboratory baking of pancakes, mixtures of amaranth flour and flour from native buckwheat were used. The selenium content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization after wet mineralization of the samples.

Results. The results of the study showed that amaranth, buckwheat and corn are rich sources of selenium. The most valuable source of selenium was amaranth flour (515 pg/kg). Selenium content in native buckwheat flour and corn flour was 405 and 458 pg/kg, respectively. The lowest selenium content among the studied crops was found in rice flour (135 pg/kg). Selenium content in flour mixtures of the studied cultures ranged from 258 to 522 pg/kg. The highest values of selenium content were observed in mixtures of amaranth with corn flour (516-522 pg/kg). The lowest content of this trace element was found in mixtures containing rice flour (from 258 to 325 pg/kg). Selenium content in pancakes made from mixtures of amaranth flour and native buckwheat flour varied from 290 to 326 pg/kg. The calculation showed that the consumption of a portion of pancakes (50 g) by school-age children will satisfy their daily requirement for selenium by 7.3-8.1%.

Conclusion. Regular inclusion of amaranth-based foods in the diet of children with gluten intolerance can positively affect the elimination of selenium deficiency.


Ivan I. Dedov

In memory of Evgeniy N. Belyaev

Evgeniy N. Belyaev (1937–2021)

SCImago Journal & Country Rank
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
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