Вопросы питания № 5 2022

Problems of Nutrition

scientific and practical journal

Included in the List of the leading peer-reviewed journals and publications recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC) of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for publication of the results of theses for the degree of candidate or doctor of science.


Content
5 . 2022
Reviews

Adequate and clinically effective levels of curcumin consumption

Annotation

Despite the existence of sufficiently effective drug therapy, interest in additional dietary interventions that improve the clinical condition of patients with the most common alimentary diseases is constantly growing; as well as the inclusion of biologically active compounds (BAC) of plant origin as functional ingredients in foods for special dietary uses (FSDU) and dietary supplements is intensively developing.

The purpose of the review is comparison of curcumin doses allowed for use in dietary supplements and FSDU with doses that provide a clinical effect, as well as an analysis of ways to increase curcumin bioavailability.

Material and methods. A review of the existing literature on the problem in recent years was carried out using the databases of the Russian Science Citation Index, PubMed, ResearchGate.

Results. The amount of BAC added to the FSDU in the daily portion has been established by domestic regulatory documents. The allowed maximum level in FSDU for curcumin is 150 mg per day. Literature analysis has shown that effective doses of turmeric are 320–1670 mg per day when consumed for 10–12 weeks. The main barriers for using curcumin at lower doses are its low water solubility, rapid metabolism and elimination from the body, and therefore poor bioavailability. Curcumin bioavailability can be increased by including it in liposomes, phospholipid complexes, emulsions, oleogels, hydrogels, etc.

Conclusion. Curcumin content in FSDU in an amount that does not reach doses with efficacy proven in a certain pathology, and the inclusion of such FSDU in the diet for a short period does not allow to achieve the expected result. A promising approach to achieve a clinical effect at lower doses of curcumin is the use of new technological methods to increase bioavailability.

Methods of gut microbiota correction for treatment and prevention of food allergy: a review of current research

Annotation

Food allergy (FA) is an actual problem in pediatric practice. The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in food sensitization development, since the maturation of immune system occurs under the influence of intestinal microorganisms. Immunoregulatory activity of gut microbiota is associated with the increase of IgA production and promotion of the barrier function of intestinal epithelium. Gut microbiota influence the activity of T-regulatory cells, as well. Violation of gut biocenosis, which occurs under the influence of various factors (artificial feeding, past diseases, the use of antibiotics, etc.), can lead to a shift in the balance of the immune system towards the increase of Th2-profile cytokines and the subsequent formation of hypersensitivity to food allergens. In this regard, the correction of the gut microbiome is a promising method of FA control, due to the ability of intestinal bacteria influence the production of T-regulatory cells and thus suppress allergy immune response.

The aim of the review is to analyze experimental and clinical studies exploring effectiveness of methods modifying intestinal microbiota in order to treat and prevent FA.

Material and methods. The analysis of the literature in eLIBRARY, MedLine and PubMed databases was carried out.

Results. The analysis revealed the lack of rigorous evidence that pre-, pro- and synbiotics significantly increase the effectiveness of standard therapy of FA. However, the use of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, lactic acid bacteria, in combination with the basic therapy of FA has general positive effect on the clinical outcome, especially in case of gastrointestinal symptoms. Also, the results of some studies indicate the effectiveness of synbiotics (Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in combination with oligosaccharides) for the prevention of FA in patients at risk of developing allergic diseases in the long-term period.

Conclusion. At present, fecal microbiota transplantation is promising method for FA treatment. Polysaccharides fermented by the microflora, are also actively studied. Experimental studies and clinical trials are required to obtain substantiated conclusions about feasibility of these methods for treatment and prevention of FA.

The role of magnesium and potassium in preventive and therapeutic nutrition

Annotation

Due to the versatility of its functions and participation in all types of metabolism, magnesium can be considered the main cation in the human organism. Equally important is the role of the main intracellular ion – potassium, which is a synergist of magnesium, especially with regard to the effect on cardiovascular system function. In Russia, there is insufficient consumption of magnesium and potassium by the population.

The purpose of the work was to assess the role of magnesium and potassium in ensuring public health.

Material and methods. Literature search was carried out using PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, RISC systems mainly over the past 10 years, with the exception of works of fundamental importance, according to the keywords “magnesium”, “bioavailability”, “potassium”, “efficiency”.

Results. Chronic hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia are involved in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders (metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and sluggish inflammation). Magnesium deficiency increases the risk of cardiovascular (arrhythmia, hypertension, heart failure), neurological diseases (stroke) and depression, as well as diseases of the respiratory system (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Potassium deficiency is also associated with pathology of the cardiovascular system. Adequate intake of magnesium and potassium with food and/or dietary supplements prevents the development of chronic metabolic complications. Various magnesium compounds used to correct its deficiency, have different bioavailability.

Conclusion. The expediency of compensating for magnesium and potassium deficiency in nutrition has been proven both for preventive purposes in a healthy person and as part of diet therapy in a patient. Enrichment of the diet with magnesium and potassium is a reliable non-drug, economical and safe prevention of chronic deficiency and associated metabolic disorders.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Physiological and biochemical evaluation of the effectiveness of a new food ingredient – blueberry polyphenol concentrate

Annotation

Extracts from bilberry leaves and blueberries containing a wide range of biologically active compounds, including polyphenols, are of particular interest due to their antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties.

In this regard, the aim of this research was to investigate in vivo the effect of a concentrate of blueberrie polyphenolic compounds with buckwheat flour on some physiological and biochemical parameters in C57Bl/6 mice with impaired carbohydrate and lipid metabolism induced by the consumption of a high fat high carbohydrate (HFHC) diet.

Material and methods. The polyphenol concentrate was obtained by sorption of blueberry extract on grinded buckwheat flour. Total polyphenol content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method, profiles of anthocyanins, flavonoids and easily digested carbohydrates were determined by HPLC. An in vivo experiment was carried out using 84 male mice C57Bl/6 for 109 days. Animals were divided into 3 groups: control fed standard semisynthetic diet, control treated with HFHC diet and experimental group treated with HFHC diet with addition of blueberry polyphenol concentrate (60 mg-eq. of gallic acid/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight gain and fasting blood glucose levels were measured during the experiment. Grip strength of the front paws of the animals was measured weekly. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance tests were carried out twice. Common physiological tests (Elevated Plus Maze and Passive Avoidance Test) were used to assess the anxiety and memory of animals. Glycated hemoglobin level was determined in blood, plasma was collected for leptin and insulin level determination. The hepatic levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were assessed.

Results. The concentrate of polyphenols extracted from blueberries and sorbed on grinded buckwheat flour was obtained under conditions that made it possible to exclude the sorption of easily digested carbohydrates – glucose, fructose and sucrose on the flour. The total concentrate content of polyphenols was 65.5±0.7 mg-eq. gallic acid/g, anthocyanins – 27.3±2.7 mg/g, flavonoids – 1.2±0.1 mg/g. The consumption of the concentrate by C57Bl/6 male mice with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders induced by a HFHC diet had a significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect, reducing the area under the curve in the insulin resistance test by 5.7% and decreasing the insulin and leptin levels by 31.3 and 15.9%, respectively (relative to the animals of comparison group fed HFHC diet). The consumption of the concentrate had a significant (p<0.05) anxiolytic effect, reducing the anxiety of animals by 2.2 times, as determined in the Elevated Plus Maze test.

Conclusion. The results of the study indicate the prospects for using the developed blueberry polyphenol concentrate adsorbed on buckwheat flour as part of specialized foods for the prevention of such alimentary dependent diseases as metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes mellitus.

Hygiene of nutrition

Nutrition monitoring in secondary education institutions

Annotation

Nutrition provided to children at school is a factor that exerts most significant influence on their health. However, certain issues remain unresolved in the sphere and this initiated nutrition monitoring within the “Demography” Russian National Project.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of nutrition monitoring in secondary education institutions located in Perm region in order to determine priority indicators for its further estimation.

Material and methods. We assessed how meals were organized in secondary schools. Data on school meals were obtained by active questioning that involved using specifically designed questionnaires. These data were collected in 60 institutions in 2021 within the “Improvement of public health” Russian Federal Project, an integral part of the “Demography” Russian National Project and within our own research programs (61 institutions, 2008). A specially designed questionnaire included a description of the diet, the number of pupils covered by meals (both organized and independent), teaching methods on healthy eating, ownership of the school canteen, as well as a request for an approximate 10-day menu. The nutrient and energy value of the diets was calculated.

Results. We established several trends after analyzing the results of nutrition monitoring in secondary education institutions in Perm region. First, a number of children who had meals at school tended to decrease with age since it went down by 12% in the 5th–9th grade (p=0.0001) and by 34% in the 10th–11th grade (p<0.001) against the 1st–4th grade (93%). Another trend was a rather low share of children who had two meals at school (not more than 20%). We established a correlation between a number of children provided with meals at school and specific organization of nutrition in a given school. Thus, if meals were provided by an outsourcer, this number went down by two times against schools with their own nutrition units. Organization of nutrition also determined costs of a meal (by 1.4 fold higher if provided by an outsourcer) but did not influence their qualitative (nutrient) structure. A number of children who had meals at school decreased against 2008 with significant differences detected in middle school (by 21%). Certain violations of nutrition regimes were established at various stages in the study. Thus, breaks became shorter than required; intervals between meals either grew or decreased improperly. All this can have certain influence on a number of children who have meals at school. In 2021, meals provided at school conformed to the existing hygienic standards as per nutritional value. Thus, breakfast provided 26–33% of the age-specific physiological needs; lunch, 38–49%. They also contained balanced quantities of basic macronutrients (the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in terms of calories: 14, 32 and 54%) but there was still imbalance in contents of minerals (calcium, phosphor, and magnesium: 1 : 1.7 : 0.6) due to calcium deficiency.

Conclusion. It is advisable to continue nutrition monitoring with greater attention paid to such indicators as a number of children provided with hot meals, nutrition regime, qualitative and quantitative structure of diets. In addition, it is recommended to estimate a number of children in middle and senior school who have meals at school and are free to choose from several courses.

Mycotoxins contamination of cocoa products and carob marketed in the Russian Federation

Annotation

Cocoa is a daily basic food for many people all over the world. Also, people engaged in healthy lifestyle often prefer carob.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate occurrence of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria secondary metabolites in cocoa and carob available in the Russian Federation and assess mycotoxin’s intake with these

products.

Material and methods. Concentration of 27 mycotoxins in 63 samples of cocoa and carob products was determined by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass-spectrometric detection (UPLC-MS/MS). The list of mycotoxins included regulated ones (aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2 toxin, zearalenone), their derivatives and structural analogs (A and B trichothecenes), and emergent mycotoxins (alternariol, its monomethyl ether, altenuene, tentoxin, citrinin, sterigmatocistin, cyclopiazonic and mycophenolic acids, enniatins, beauvericin).

Results. 29 of 41 cocoa samples were positive for beauvericin, contamination level was from 1.6 to 2184.8 μg/kg. Tentoxin, sterigmatocystin and alternatiol monomethyl ether were detected in 3 samples; their concentration varied in the ranges 0.7–1.2, 1.5–3.3 and 4.0–7.8 μg/kg correspondingly. Carob samples were positive for alternariol (14 of 22 samples, 1.5–43.1 μg/kg); tentoxin (13 samples, 0.5–8.7 μg/kg), mycophenolic acid (6 samples, 6.9–8.2 μg/kg) and for alternatiol monomethyl ether (3 samples, 1.0–1.2 μg/kg). Several samples of cocoa were contaminated with regulated mycotoxins: zearalenone (18 of 41 samples, 2.1–24.6 μg/kg), ochratoxin A (14 samples, 0.75–12.0 μg/kg) and aflatoxin B1 (2 samples, 0.59 and 0.86 μg/kg). Several carob samples were contaminated with fumonisin B2 (7 of 22 samples, 4.2–5.2 μg/kg), ochratoxin A (5 samples, 0.5–1.4 μg/kg) and aflatoxin B1 (3 samples, 0.15–0.18 μg/kg). The ochratoxin A content in two instant cocoa beverages exceeded its maximum level (5 μg/kg) set for some plant products.

Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first survey devoted to emergent mycotoxin contamination of carob and cocoa alternative products marketed in the Russian Federation. The high occurrence of such mycotoxins as aflatoxins, beauvericin and ochratoxin A in these products indicates a potential health risk and the need for a hygienic assessment of cocoa and carob products’ contamination not only with regulated in cocoa products aflatoxin B1, but with other mycotoxin including emergent ones. The risk of dietary intake of aflatoxins, beauvericin and ochratoxin A with cocoa products (especially with instant cocoa beverages) has been revealed for children over 7 years old in organized groups.

Body composition and basal metabolic rate in overweight and obese patients

Annotation

Diet therapy is a key moment in the treatment of patients with obesity. The energy value of the diet must directly depend on the daily energy expenditure. It is extremely important for a specialist who determines a diet for a patient, using an individual approach, to most accurately calculate daily energy expenditure. On the one hand, the calculation method should be as accurate as possible, on the other hand, it should be simple and economically affordable.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the body composition in patients depending on gender and body mass index and to identify the optimal method for calculating the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in patients with various degrees of obesity.

Material and methods. The study included data from 338 men aged 39.0±11.9 years and 847 women aged 44.0±12.5 years. The study of the body composition was carried out by the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis on the analyzer “InBody 770”, which simultaneously provides information on the BMR, calculated taking into account the composition of the body according to the Ketch–McArdle formula. The BMR was also calculated using the Mifflin–St. Jeor formula and the results were compared.

Results. In men and women, with an increase in body weight, an increase in skeletal muscle mass is noted, which entails an increase in the BMR. The BMR, calculated by the formula that does not take into account the volume of the main body energy-consuming tissues, differed from that calculated by the formula that takes into account the value of metabolically active components of the human body composition, towards an increase in men with obesity of class 2 and class 3 degrees, by 141 kcal and by 294 kcal, respectively, in women with obesity class 1 – by 81 kcal, class 2 – by 139 kcal, class 3 – by 262 kcal.

Conclusion. When conducting primary diagnostics on an outpatient basis in patients with overweight and obesity, along with simple anthropometry, it is necessary to perform a body composition study. The calculation of the BMR as a component of daily energy expenditure should be carried out taking into account the characteristics of the body composition. If it is not possible to conduct a bioelectrical impedance study and accurately calculate the BMR, the results obtained during this research can be used: BMR in men with obesity of the class 1 – 18.5 kcal/day kg body weight, with obesity of the class 2 – 16.6 kcal/day kg body weight, with obesity class 3 – 14.6 kcal/day kg body weight; BMR in women – respectively 16.7, 15.0 and 13.5 kcal/day kg body weight.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FOODSTUFFS

Dietary correction of metabolic disorders in patients with diabetic nephropathy

Annotation

One of the ways to optimize the complex treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the use of therapeutic nutrition with the inclusion of foods for special dietary use (FSDU) that correct carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, properties.

The aim of the research was to study the effect of a low-protein diet with the inclusion of FSDU on some clinical and biochemical parameters in patients with DN.

Material and methods. 30 patients with DN and concomitant obesity of I–III stages were examined, which were divided into two groups of 15 people each. Patients of the main group received a low-protein diet for 14 days (protein 62.4 g/day, energy value 1360 kcal/day) with the inclusion of FSDU (124 kcal per portion), modified by protein, fat and carbohydrate profile (dry instant mixture), and the comparison group – a low-protein diet without the inclusion of FSDU. In blood serum, the content of glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (CH), triglycerides, cholesterol of low and high density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activity, levels of potassium, phosphorus, calcium. Glomerular filtration rate was calculated and body composition indicators were studied using the bioimpedancemetry.

Results. Patients of the main group showed a statistically significant decrease in fat mass by an average of 5.5% (p=0.0001) and a tendency to increase muscle mass by 1.7% (p>0.05) from the initial level. Among the patients of the comparison group, the decrease in fat mass was 4.9% (p=0.0001) against the background of a decrease in lean body mass by 2.5% (p>0.05). When comparing biochemical parameters, positive dynamics of glycemic control indicators was noted in both groups: the level of glucose in blood serum decreased (p<0.005) by 10.9 and 9.3% from the initial level in the main group and the comparison group. A more pronounced decrease in LDL and triglycerides was noted in patients of the main group (29.4 and 26.2%, respectively, p=0.005), in the comparison group the decrease in these indicators was less pronounced and statistically insignificant.

Conclusion. The results obtained indicate an increase in the effectiveness of therapeutic nutrition in patients with DN and concomitant obesity when an FSDU with a modified protein, fat and carbohydrate profile is included in a low-protein diet.

Efficacy of newly developed kombucha-based specialized food product for treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

Annotation

According to studies, the prevalence of constipation in the population can reach 27% due to the low intake of dietary fiber. Increasing dietary fiber intake can improve bowel movements.

The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a non-alcoholic fermented pasteurized kombucha drink enriched with inulin and vitamins in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Material and methods. The study (NCT05164861) was approved by Local Ethics Committee and enrolled subjects with IBS (according to ROME IV). The subjects were randomized to receive either 220 ml of a non-alcoholic drink, based on pasteurized kombucha (KG), enriched with inulin (1.15 g/100 ml) or 220 ml water (control group, CG), for 10 days. Standard examination included evaluation of stool frequency (bowel movements per day), stool form (with the Bristol stool scale) and evaluation of concomitant symptoms (abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal fullness, bloating, and feeling of incomplete bowel emptying) with the use of 5-point Likert scale before (BL) and 10 days after the start of intervention (EOT). Using visual analog scales (VAS), the palatability of the studied food was assessed at the beginning and end of the observation period.

Results. Significant increase of stool frequency was found at the EOT compared to BL in KG (n=20), Mean±SD: 0.60±0.31 to 0.85±0.19 times/day; p=0.004, while there was no change in CG (n=20): 0.63±0.33 vs 0.72±0.28, p=0.6. Mean values of stool scale form increased in KG (3.0±1.2 to 4.4±1.0, p=0.001), while remained unchanged in CG (2.9±1.2 vs 3.4±1.2, p=0.6). Mean values of the Bristol stool scale in KG and CG differed significantly at EOT (p=0.018). Significant decrease in mean values of incomplete bowel emptying feeling was found in KG (1.88±0.78 at BL vs 1.41±0.56 points at EOT, p=0.015), but not in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between patient’s reports of the studied groups for other symptoms (bitterness and dryness in the mouth, heartburn, nausea, abdominal pain and heaviness in the stomach after eating).

Conclusion. The effectiveness of a pasteurized fermented non-alcoholic drink based on kombucha enriched with inulin has been proven by reducing the intensity of complaints significant for constipation, normalizing the frequency and consistency of stools.

Low-fat cheese in the focus of dietary nutrition

Annotation

Currently, products with a reduced content of saturated fatty acids and a high protein content occupy an important place in the structure of a balanced diet, which leads to an increasing demand for cheeses with a low content of milk fat and high organoleptic properties. As a result of the growing trend towards the consumption of products with a reduced calorie content, there is a scientific interest in the development of technologies for low-fat cheeses with high consumer characteristics that are not inferior to analogues with a fat content of 45–50%. However, low-fat cheeses produced using existing technologies, as a rule, are characterized by low organoleptic properties, including an unexpressed taste and aroma and a rough, rubbery texture.

The purpose of the research was to develop a low-fat cheese with high organoleptic characteristics, produced using not only the main acid-forming microflora, but also adjunct bacterial cultures that enhance enzymatic processes during cheese ripening and have probiotic properties.

Material and methods. The production of low-fat cheeses (options 2 and 3) with a fat mass fraction of 20% in terms of dry matter was carried out according to a single technological scheme, which ensures the manufacture of cheese after pressing with a mass fraction of moisture of 53–54%. As a control option (1), Dutch cheese was produced with a fat mass fraction of 45%. Bulk starter containing a mixture of lactococci of the Lactococcus lactis species was used as the main acid-forming starter microflora in all cheese options (1, 2, 3); in low-fat cheese option 3, adjunct cultures of Lactobacillus casei and Propionibacterium freudenreichii were added. During ripening, cheeses were subjected to microbiological (total quantity of viable cells of lactic acid microorganisms, Lactobacillus casei and Propionibacterium freudenreichii), physicochemical (mass fraction of lactose, fat, moisture, solids, protein) and organoleptic studies. The total quantity of viable cells of the mesophilic lactic acid microflora was determined by the quantity of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. In cheeses after the end of the ripening process, the molecular mass distribution of soluble nitrogenous compounds and the content of flavoring substances in the vapor phase were additionally evaluated.

Results. It has been established that in low-fat cheeses, the mass fraction of protein increases by 5.9±0.1% with a decrease in the proportion of fat to 20.0%. In this regard, the calorie content of low-fat cheese reduced by a third. It has been demonstrated that differences in the composition of the starter microflora had a significant impact on the depth and direction of biochemical processes, the formation of flavoring substances, which lead to an improvement in the organoleptic characteristics of cheeses.

Conclusion. The addition of adjunct cultures of Lactobacillus casei mesophilic rods and Propionibacterium freudenreichii propionic acid bacteria, together with technological methods, contributes to the formation of a pronounced cheese taste and aroma, improves the flavor profile and deepens the process of proteolysis in cheeses with a fat mass fraction of 20% and brings their consumer properties closer to those of cheese with a fat content of 45%.

Squid fat as a promising source of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Annotation

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are substances that play an important role in human metabolism. They are essential nutritional factors and can improve the functioning of individual systems and the body as a whole. The main source of ω-3 PUFA has long been fish fat, which contains PUFA in the triglyceride form. A fairly new and promising alternative to fish fat is the liver fat of the Commander squid (Berryteuthis magister), which additionally contains alkylglycerols, contains PUFA in the phospholipid form and can be obtained from squid fishery waste.

The objective of the research was to carry out an analysis of scientific data, including the results of studies of the biological activity of squid fat, as well as its components that are part of other similar raw materials, and evaluate the prospects for its use in medical practice.

Material and methods. During the study, various sources were analyzed, including scientific literature from electronic databases eLibrary, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and electronic search engines Google Academy from 2000 to 2022.

Results. It is noted that squid fat has a pronounced biological activity. Its components increase innate immunity, have antitumor potential, improve the state of the body under stress, have hypolipidemiс and hypotensive effect, improve memory and attention, and also positively affect the composition and rheological parameters of blood. In addition to these effects, a positive effect of ω-3 PUFA and alkylglycerols on spermatogenesis, sperm quality and the female reproductive system has been noted. In a number of studies, alkyl-glycerol esters increased the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and, due to their structure, are able to form vesicles, therefore, they can be considered as raw materials for the production of new dosage forms for targeted therapy of brain tumors. In the available literature, in the case of the use of squid fat and its components, undesirable side effects have not been identified.

Conclusion. Squid fat is a complete source of ω-3 PUFA and alkylglycerols, therefore it can be recommended as a dietary supplement, especially in a diet low in ω-3 PUFA.

Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Comparative analysis of the total content of polyphenols in some types of industrial juice products

Annotation

Fruits are the most important source of polyphenols, substances that have a positive effect on human health. Modern technologies for the industrial processing of fruits into juice are aimed at preserving the useful components of the raw material in it. The issue of the content of polyphenols in industrial juice products, and, especially, changes in their concentration over time, is important for understanding the nutritional value of juice products and requires further study.

The purpose of the work is to study the total content of polyphenols depending on the type of juice products and the time elapsed since the product was manufactured.

Material and methods. The total content of polyphenols in terms of gallic acid was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method in four popular types of juice products (orange, grapefruit and apple juice, cherry nectar), various brands and with different production dates. The results of the determination in 60 product samples selected from Russian retail chains were analyzed.

Results. Polyphenols are found in all types of products in significant amounts: in orange juices from 678 to 870 mg/kg, in grapefruit juices from 447 to 798 mg/kg, in apple juices from 264 to 1320 mg/kg, in cherry nectars from 696 to 1090 mg/kg. The highest average content was found in cherry nectars (859±106 mg/kg), followed by orange (781±54 mg/kg) and grapefruit juices (634±91 mg/kg). In apple juices, there is a significant variation in the content of polyphenols depending on the method of juice production – the highest content of polyphenols was found in straight-pressed apple juices (1119±124 mg/kg). The content of polyphenols in products stored for six months or more does not show any significant differences from the content in fresher products, which suggests a consistently high content of polyphenols in juice products throughout the entire shelf life.

Conclusion. The study showed the presence of high concentrations of common polyphenols in juice products. The dependence of total polyphenol content on the time elapsed since the production of juice product was not found. Juice products of industrial production can make a significant contribution to the intake of polyphenols in the human body.

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CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Вскрытие
Medicine today

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