Bioactive compounds in the nutrition of peri- and postmenopausal women within the concept of 4P-medicine
An updated consensus statement from the European Menopause and Andropause Society noted that a woman’s quality of life may decline during peri- and post-menopause as a result of various menopausal symptoms and age-related comorbidities.
The purpose of the work was to assess the possibility of using bioactive compounds in peri- and postmenopausal women to prevent the development of menopausal complications and chronic diseases associated with aging.
Material and methods. Literature search was carried out using PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, RSCI databases mainly over the past 10 years, with the exception of works of fundamental importance, according to the keywords “perimenopause”, “postmenopause”, “Affron® saffron extract”, “special extract ERr 731”.
Results. The use of diet, dietary supplements including those containing extracts of saffron (Affron®) and Siberian rhubarb (ERr 731) and their biologically active substances, has a versatile effect on the correction of menopausal disorders due to the impact on various pathogenetic pathways of their development and can be used in women in this period as a phytonutrient support.
Conclusion. The combined use of saffron and Siberian rhubarb extracts is promising from the point of view of correcting the female state during peri- and postmenopause, taking into account the pathogenetic moments of the development of menopausal complications and chronic diseases associated with aging.
The study of the content of short-chain fatty acids in the intestine of people with lipid metabolism disorders
Dyslipidemias are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, especially at a young age. It is known from modern sources that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) synthesized in the intestine are actively involved in the genesis of dyslipidemia, the spectrum and ratio of which depends on the consumed food substrates. In particular, it has been found that food components such as dietary fiber can affect the lowering of blood lipids by affecting the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, dietary correction can be an important step in the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia, and as a result, help reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CD).
The aim of the research was to study the content of the main SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) in the feces of people with dyslipidemia, including taking into account the actual nutrition and consumption of the carbohydrate fraction of the diet (starch, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fiber) as precursors of SCFAs.
Material and methods. 70 patients aged 18 to 45 years with dyslipidemia were selected as stool donors. All subjects were divided into 2 groups: the main group with the risk of CD (the risk was determined by the risk scale for CD) and the comparison group with established cardiovascular pathology (CVP). SCFAs in stool samples collected after natural defecation and subjected to immediate freezing at -70 °C were determined by gas chromatography. The diet was analyzed by the 24-hour food recall method.
Results. The frequency of occurrence of the optimal ratio acetate – acetic acid : propionate – propionic acid : butyrate – butyric acid (60:20:20) in all groups was no more than 25%. At the same time, in persons at risk of CD, in the SCFA pool there was a pronounced decrease in the proportion of butyrate, which is characterized by cardioprotective properties, up to 15% (with an optimal proportion of 20%) compared with the levels for healthy people noted in the works of M.D. Ardatskaya et al. and A.A. Kurmangulov. And in persons with CVP, the levels of fecal acetate, which is a regulator of metabolic processes, namely lipogenesis, differed insignificantly compared with the values obtained in the studies of the above authors. In all examined individuals, the content of acetate in feces depended on the carbohydrate component of the diet, primarily on the total amount of carbohydrates consumed. And increasing the amount of dietary fiber intake contributed to the elevation of this SCFA. In individuals at risk of CD a significant correlation was found between the content of acetate and the atherogenic index (r=0,695). And in persons with CVP, there was a high negative correlation between the level of acetate in the feces and the amount of mono- and disaccharides in the diet (r=-0,934).
Conclusion. In individuals with dyslipidemia and CVD risk factors, the results obtained in this study confirm the need for targeted correction of diets in order to increase the proportion of food substrates, which are potential precursors of butyrate.
Mycotoxins in spices consumed in Russia
Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives and traditional medicines. As many other plant products, they can be exposed to contaminants, ones of which are mycotoxins, secondary metabolites of fungi. Such contamination can occur during harvesting, processing and storage, distribution, retailing and consumer use. Although they are used and consumed in small quantities, but added to a wide variety of products, especially ready-to-eat products. So the assessment of their contamination with mycotoxins is very important.
The aim of the study was to investigate the contamination of spices and herbs with mycotoxins of fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria, as well as to assess the mycotoxins intake per person when consuming these food groups.
Material and methods. Concentration of mycotoxins in 155 samples of spices and herbs was determined by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass-spectrometric detection (UHPLC-MS/MS). The list of mycotoxins included deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, fumonisins, sterigmatocistin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, enniatins, beauvericin, neosolaniol, citreoviridin, mycophenolic acid, citrinin, tentoxin, altenuene, alternariol and its monomethyl ether.
Results. Among the regulated in plant products mycotoxins in the studied samples there were found aflatoxins (B1 – in 19% of samples, from 0.4 to 48.2 µg/kg, B2 – 8%, from < limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 3.2 µg/kg, G1 – 2%, 0.75–21 µg/kg, G2 – 5%, 0.5–12.5 µg/kg), ochratoxin A (15% samples, 0.8–14 µg/kg), fumonisin B1 (8%, 16.1–722.6 µg/kg), and fumonisin B2 (14%, < LOQ – 79.6 µg/kg). T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol were found in 10% of samples (< LOQ – 6.5 µg/kg and < LOQ – 65.5 µg/kg respectively), zearalenone – in 4 samples (1.7–106.2 µg/kg), HT-2 toxin – in 8 samples (5.4–19.8 µg/kg). Among little-studied (emergent) mycotoxins in the spices and herbs samples there were found tentoxin (in 36% of samples, in an amount from 0.7 to 10.9 µg/kg), altenuene (in 8%, 14.5–161.5 µg/kg). 10% of the samples were contaminated with alternariol and its methyl ether (from less than LOQ to 12.8 and < LOQ to 55.7 µg/kg, respectively), 4% – with sterigmatocystin (0.4–7.8 µg/kg), 5% – mycophenolic acid (13.1–297 µg/kg), 2% of the samples were contaminated with citrinin and enniatin B (< LOQ – 27.7 and 0.1–1 µg/kg), in 9 samples (6%) beauvericin was detected (< LOQ – 1.7 µg/kg). Over 60% of samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. The content of aflatoxin B1 exceeded the maximum permissible level set in the EU (5 µg/kg) in nine samples.
Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first in the Russian Federation to report results indicating to the contamination of spices and herbs with mycotoxins. High occurrence of aflatoxins, tentoxin, ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 has been observed. In calculating the potential exposure of mycotoxins, the possibility of high levels of aflatoxin B1 intake have been shown to be possible, which could lead to a public health risk when consuming contaminated spices, herbs and foods containing them.
Assessment of the role of nutritional and genetic determinants in the formation of the risk of diseases associated with folate cycle disorders in the population of the Omsk region
A number of essential nutrients are involved in the folate cycle, and its effectiveness depends on the sufficient intake of them. In addition, polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes affect a wide range of biochemical reactions of the folate cycle and should also be considered as a risk factor for the development of a number of diseases.
The purpose of this research was to study the prevalence of these risk factors.
Material and methods. The prevalence of polymorphisms of the folate cycle genes: C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and A66G polymorphism of the MTRR gene in a random stratified (by sex and age) sample of the adult population of the Omsk region [n=139, 51 men, 88 women, aged 18 to 75 years, median age 37 (26; 48) years] was studied. The identification of polymorphisms was carried out by the method of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction with an electrophoretic detection scheme. Using the food intake frequency questionnaire, the dietary intake of nutrients involved in the folate cycle was determined: B vitamins (B6, B2, B9, B12), methionine, choline, in a representative stratified sample of residents of the Omsk region [n=421, 177 men, 244 women, aged 18 to 83 years, median age 37 (23; 57) years].
Results. MTHFR genotypes (A222V С677T C>T) were distributed as follows: CC-type – 51.3%, CT – 41.0%, TT – 7.7%; MTRR genotypes (I22M A>G): AA type – 57.9%, AG – 30.3%, GG – 11.8%. The analysis of actual nutrition showed consumption below the recommended dietary intake of folates in 88.2% persons, vitamin B2 and choline – in 40.5%, vitamin B6 – in 29.2%, methionine – in 22.0%. Vitamin B12 intake was within the recommended range.
Conclusion. The totality of the data presented indicates the combined influence and wide distribution of factors that determine the low efficiency of the folate cycle, and, as a result, a high risk of developing a characteristic pathology for the adult population of the region, which determines the need and priorities for prevention measures, including healthy nutrition.
Functional food ingredient – chromium complex with protein fermentolysate of bivalve Mactra chinensis for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and obesity
The creation of specialized food systems capable of correcting body weight and influencing lipid metabolism is an urgent task at the present stage. The main way to create such food systems is to modify product profiles (lipid, protein, carbohydrate, mineral, vitamin, etc.).
The aim of the study was to obtain and characterize a new food source of an organic form of chromium for the prevention
of hyperlipidemia and obesity in the form of a complex with peptide fractions of fermentolysate proteins of the Mactra chinensis bivalve mollusk from the Far Eastern region.
Material and methods. Soft food parts of the Mactra chinensis bivalve mollusk from the Far Eastern region (the motor muscle and mantle) were used as objects of research. Mollusk specimens were collected in the Amur Bay in June – September 2022. Biotechnological modification of soft tissue proteins was carried out using alkaline protease protozyme B with the following parameters: the duration of the process – 12 and 24 hours, pH – 7.0–7.2, temperature 55 °C. The fractional composition of proteins and peptides was determined by medium pressure gel permeation chromatography, the molecular weight (MW) of proteins and peptides was calculated using MW markers by comparing retention volumes. Extraction of free amino acids was carried out with 70% ethanol for 24 hours at a temperature of 20 °C, the composition and quantitative content of amino acids were determined by HPLC. The complexation reaction was carried out by adding to the fermentolysate with stirring a 10% aqueous solution of CrCl3×6H2O in a mass ratio of 6.25 × nitrogen in the liquid fraction : chromium (III) chloride = 20:1. Process conditions: temperature 20–25 °C, time 60 min, pH 7.0–7.1. The chromium content was determined by the atomic absorption method using spectrophotometer.
Results. The content of low-molecular fractions increased more significantly over time in the mantle fermentolysate. The content of the high-molecular fraction of peptides weighing more than 160 kDa was minimal for both the muscle and the mantle and didn’t exceed 1.1%. Low-molecular fractions weighing no more than 18 kDa in the 24-hour fermentolysate accounted for 79.6% for the muscle and 86.9% for the mantle. The obtained fermentolysates were characterized by a high content of the biologically active amino acid taurine – 25.9% (muscle) and 30.05% (mantle) of the total amino acid content. The high content of such essential amino acids as glycine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and the conditionally essential amino acid arginine was also determined. The obtained fermentolysates of soft tissue proteins of the Mactra chinensis were characterized by a fairly balanced amino acid composition. It has been experimentally established that more than 84% of the total chromium content in muscle fermentolysate and 80.9% in mantle fermentolysate was associated with peptide fractions with molecular weights from 24 to 1.4 kDa, and the highest specific chromium content – 1.67 mg/g protein (muscle) and 1.58 mg/g protein (mantle) was determined in the interval fractions with molecular weights of 18.0–12.5 kDa. The minimum specific content of the trace element was established for high-molecular fractions of 160–67 kDa and low-molecular fraction weighing less than 1.4 kDa.
Conclusion. Biotechnological modification of soft tissue proteins of the Mactra chinensis bivalve mollusk from the Far Eastern region made it possible to obtain a balanced amino acid composition fermentolysate with a high content of the free biologically active amino acid taurine. Fortification of the obtained fermentolysate with chromium demonstrated high efficiency of its binding to the amino acid and peptide matrices of the protein hydrolysate. The chromium complex with fermentolysate of proteins of the Mactra chinensis bivalve mollusk can be used as a food source of chromium and taurine, including as a functional ingredient in special food systems for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and obesity.
Prevalence of trehalase enzymopathy genetic determinants in Siberian and Russian Far East populations
To date, it has been established that the patient’s genotype plays a significant role in the formation of trehalase enzymopathy: the level of enzyme activity decreases when the G→A allele replacement occurs in the rs2276064 locus of the TREH gene. To assess the prevalence of trehalase deficiency, extensive population-based studies are needed. Clinical observations show that the reduced activity of bowel trehalase is more common in the Arctic than in European populations.
The aim of this research was to analyze the frequency of the alleles and variants of trehalase gene (rs2276064 TREH) in the indigenous small-numbered populations of Siberia and the Russian Far East.
Material and methods. Using the Infinium iSelect HD Custom BeadChip biochip on the iScan platform and real-time polymerase chain reaction on a Bio-Rad CFX96 Touch amplifier, genotyping of 1068 DNA samples was carried out, of which 711 represent 10 ethnic groups of the indigenous people of the North of Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. Two reference groups of Russians (n=311) and Yakuts (n=46) represented the “Caucasoid” and “Mongoloid” poles of the Russian population.
Results. The reduced trehalase activity that the heterozygous GA*TREH genotype determines can manifest itself in 19.8–53.7% of indigenous northerners. An additional 1.0 to 19.7% of the population are carriers of the AA*TREH genotype, which is associated with apparent trehalose malabsorption. The carriers may experience nausea, abdominal pain, and other dyspeptic symptoms after eating trehalose containing foods. The total risk of trehalase enzymopathy among the indigenous northerners in the Asian part of the Russian Federation is very high and can reach 60–70%. There is a gradient in the A*TREH allele frequencies in the small-numbered indigenous northern groups of Russia from the west (Khanty, Mansi, Nenets) to the east (peoples of the Far East).
Conclusion. The results are consistent with previously reported data on the higher carriage of the A*TREH mutant allele in Mongoloid populations compared to Caucasoid groups. It was hypothesized that, while the initial A*TREH allele prevalence in Mongoloid groups was moderately high, an adaptation to a low-sugar protein-lipid “high-latitude” diet led to a weaker control over the maintenance of the carriage of the ancestral G allele. Trehalose malabsorption requires special attention of specialists in the field of nutrition, gastroenterology, public health, and medical genetics working in high-latitude regions.
State of the hepatobiliary system on the data of ultrasonic examination in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity
Currently, a stable increase in the incidence of overweight and obesity is noted, this fact leads to an elevation in comorbidity with them. The relevance of the study is due to the involvement of the hepatobiliary system in the development of metabolic dysfunction and the formation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the future.
The aim of the research was to study the effect of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents on the state of the hepatobiliary system on the basis of ultrasound examination.
Material and methods. A single-center retrospective comparative study was conducted. The main group consisted of 112 children and adolescents with Z-score body mass index (BMI) above +1SD, the comparison group consisted of 264 persons with a BMI from -2 to +1SD aged 5–17 years. An analysis of the results of anthropometric, including the assessment of BMI, ultrasound and biochemical studies was carried out.
Results. The Z-score of BMI corresponding to overweight was recorded in 54 (13.8%) examined persons, and obesity – in 58 (14.8%) patients. In children of the main group, an increase in the size of the liver was recorded 3.6 fold more often, diffuse changes in the liver were revealed 32.4 fold more often, an increase in the volume of the gallbladder – 2.1 fold, signs of excessive aerocolia – 3.3 fold more often (p<0.001). In children with overweight and obesity, the level of triglycerides (p=0.003), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.035), glucose (p=0.012), C-reactive protein (p=0.011), malon dyalldehyde (p=0.012), the activity of alaninaminotransferase (p<0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (p=0.001) were statistically significant, with a significantly lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.001). Statistically significant logistic models of the probability of an increase in the linear dimensions of the liver, diffuse changes, an increase in the volume of the gallbladder, the presence of excessive aerocolia signs from the Z-score BMI value were obtained. The Nigelkirk determination coefficient was 0.34, 0.17, 0.11 and 0.10 c.u. respectively.
Conclusion. The contribution of overweight and obesity to the increase in the linear dimensions of the liver and the volume of the gallbladder, the formation of diffuse changes and excessive aerocolia according to the ultrasound examination was 10–34%.
Concepts of modern gerontology and geriatrics and the role of nutrition in their achievement
Many factors take part in increasing the healthy period of life – the quality of the environment, drinking water, psychological attitudes in society, dietary patterns, comfort of living, quality of housing, economic relations in the state and society, the degree of landscaping and much more. Collectively, the factors that lead to a healthier and longer life are called the environment that promotes longevity. The scientific study of such an environment, changing everyday life in terms of its quality related to health and increasing duration, is the newest trend in anti-aging medicine. Individual viability (intrinsic capacity) is one of the 4 concepts of geriatrics. The main concept is senile asthenia, the second is premature aging, the third is age viability, which is a psychological state of aging. It seems promising to study the effect of nutrition on individual vitality and longevity.
Objective – to study the influence of nutrition on the aging process, to develop further preventive programs based on the data obtained.
Methods. Search for literature on nutrition and age problems was held in the databases of RSCI, PubMed, Google Scholar by keywords: aging, ageism, nutrition, individual viability, age-related changes, resilience diet, age-related viability, senile asthenia, domain approach, age.
Results. Domain-based assessment is a modern diagnosticis of the condition of people of older age groups, which forms the basis for the development of gerontological preventive programs, in which nutrition plays an important role. Modern studies indicate that the transition in nutrition from «Western» patterns to diets with a high content of plant products, as well as fish, vegetable protein (nuts), reduced salt content prevents the development of complications of age-associated diseases by the mechanism of reducing inflammation and hyperinsulinemia, replenishing micronutrient deficiency.
Conclusion. Many studies have confirmed the relationship between compliance with optimal nutrition and longevity, as well as a reduced risk of early development of age-associated diseases. Further research in the field of gerontology will help in the future to develop a comprehensive system of measures aimed at increasing life expectancy and increasing individual viability.
Effect of 6-month S-methylmethionine intake on the quality of life and dyspepsia symptoms in patients with chronic gastritis
S-methylmethionine (methylmethionine sulfonium chloride), better known as vitamin U, is a metabolic substrate that affects many metabolic processes in the human organism. Since its discovery, a large number of studies has been produced demonstrating its safety and effectiveness in various diseases, especially in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of methylmethionine sulfonium chloride (vitamin U) intake on the symptoms of dyspepsia and the quality of life of patients with chronic gastritis.
Material and methods. The study included 37 patients (21 men and 16 women) aged 35–60 years with chronic gastritis of various etiologies. After inclusion in the study, all patients were prescribed S-methylmethionine at a dose of 300 mg per day. Clinical manifestations of dyspepsia were assessed using the GSRS questionnaire (Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale), quality of life was assessed using the SF 36 questionnaire. The survey was conducted before the start of the therapy, after 3 and 6 months of complex diet therapy.
Results. The most pronounced manifestations were dyspeptic (from 3 to 9 points) and diarrheal syndromes (from 2 to 5 points). Other indicators of the GSRS scale did not exceed 4 points. The total score was 15 points. By the 3rd month of therapy, there was a statistically significant decrease in the total score to 9 points (p<0.05). By the 6th month of therapy, the total GSRS score averaged 5.5 points (p<0.05). According to the SF 36 questionnaire, by the end of the 3rd month of therapy, indicators such as PF – physical functioning, BP – Bodily pain and SF – social functioning improved. By the end of the 6th month of therapy, several other indicators also improved (RP – role-physical functioning, GH – general perception of health, VT – viability, RE – Role-Emotional; MH – mental health) (p<0.05).
Conclusion. The study showed that the appointment of dietary supplements containing methylmethionine sulfonium chloride at a dose of 300 mg per day helps to reduce the severity of dyspeptic symptoms in patients with chronic gastritis and their quality of life.
Effect of dietary supplements and whey protein on muscle mass and strength of the operated limb after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review
Muscle weakness and atrophy of the quadriceps muscle after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may persist for up to 6 months after surgery and cause re-injury to the ipsilateral or contralateral limbs. Many authors state that adequate nutritional status during the rehabilitation period can contribute to faster postoperative recovery of muscle mass and strength of the lower limb, be an adjunct to exercise, or serve an alternative treatment strategy.
The purpose of the research was to conduct a systematic review of the literature and evaluate the degree of influence of dietary supplements on muscle mass and strength of the operated limb after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).
Material and methods. The search for articles was carried out in international databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library. The time frame of the search was 22 years. To be included in the review, studies had to meet the PICOS criteria: participants were men and women over 18 years of age after ACL reconstruction; intervention – supplementation after and/or before and after ACL reconstruction; comparison – placebo group or no supplementary interventions; results – assessment of the dynamics of changes in muscle mass (cross-sectional area, muscle thickness or size of skeletal muscle fibers) and / or maximum strength (dynamic or isometric) of the operated limb; research design – randomized controlled trials (RCT). The quality of selected RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias (RoB 2) tool.
Results. A total of 1397 articles were found after searching in the databases. This systematic review included 6 RCTs with a total number of patients 186. The following dietary supplements were used: leucine – 1 article, glucosamine – 1 article, creatine – 1 article, vitamins E and C – 2 articles. One study evaluated the effect of whey protein supplementation in combination with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on isometric strength of the operated limb. When comparing the data of 3 groups in the pre- and postoperative periods, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. When considering the protocols for taking dietary supplements based on creatine, glucosamine, vitamins E and C, none of the studies demonstrated statistically significant improvements in the parameters of maximum strength or muscle hypertrophy of the operated limb in the main groups compared with the control groups. Also, no results have been obtained indicating that these dietary supplements can slow down muscle atrophy after surgery. In another study that evaluated the effect of leucine supplementation, by the end of the rehabilitation program, the muscle strength of the operated limb tended to increase more in the leucine group than in the placebo group, but without a statistically significant difference. At 10 cm from the patella, the femoral circumference of the operated limb in the leucine group increased more than in the placebo group, and the differences were statistically significant (р=0.009). Two studies were rated as high risk of bias, three as moderate risk, and one as low risk.
Conclusion. None of the supplements used had a statistically significant effect on the muscle strength of the operated limb after ACL reconstruction. In terms of thigh muscle hypertrophy, the only significant improvement was associated with leucine supplementation and an increase in thigh circumference at a distance of 10 cm from the patella.
Cow colostrum: component composition, biological properties and application practice
Bovine colostrum (ВС) has a high biological value, which allows it to be used for the development of new functional products.
The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of using BC for the prevention and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases.
Material and methods. The search for scientific information on the study of the component composition, immunobiological properties and the use of BC in clinical practice was carried out using the databases of the RSCI, CyberLeninka, ScienceDirect, PubMed.
Results. The macro- and micronutrient composition of BC is presented, its changes over time from the moment of calving are described. A comparative analysis of the content of various components in milk and colostrum is presented. A detailed list of antimicrobial factors that increase nonspecific resistance and provide immunocorrective, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects is submitted. The possibility of using BC in clinical practice as a part of complex therapy in the treatment of various infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2, as well as in cardiovascular diseases, allergies, autoimmune and oncological diseases, has been demonstrated.
Conclusion. According to the literature, BC has a high safety profile and is applicable to all age groups of the population. Given the wide range of biological activity of BC components, a promising area of scientific research is the development of the products for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, including dietary supplements, based on its ingredients, which have the desired properties for correcting the immune status, preventing non-communicable and infectious diseases, as well as for prevention of occupational diseases among persons working in harmful working conditions.
Investigation of the possibility of obtaining butter with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) consumed with dietary fats are physiologically active substances involved in metabolic processes in the organism, in particular, carbohydrate-fat and cholesterol metabolism, regulation of redox processes. Butter is one of the main food items of the daily human diet. The basis of butter is milk fat, which is characterized by a rich fatty acid composition and unique properties. The possibility of obtaining butter with the desired ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids without making adjustments to the technological process using milk with high PUFA content has been investigated.
The purpose of the study was to obtain butter enriched with PUFA from the milk of Holstein cows with a modified fatty acid composition towards an increased content of unsaturated fatty acids.
Material and methods. For the research, dairy raw materials from lactating Holstein cows were used, the milking herd included 881 cows. Dairy raw materials were studied, selected individually from each cow. According to the results of an in–depth assessment of the composition of milk lipid fractions, a group of cows was isolated after the first calving – 15 heads, whose milk was characterized by an increased content of unsaturated fatty acids. The content of milk fat, protein, lactose and fatty acid composition of milk were determined by infrared spectrometry with Fourier transform. Butter was produced from the milk of the experimental and control (combined) groups, which was evaluated by organoleptic (on a 20-point scale), physico-chemical parameters, including fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography.
Results. Milk obtained from cows of the experimental group differed downward from the combined milk produced in the whole herd in terms of protein and casein content by 12.8%, dry matter – by 4.4%, SOMO – by 3.1%. It varied upwards in milk sugar level (by 3.2%). In the milk fat of the milk of the experimental group of cows, the total amount of saturated fatty acids was reduced by 14.9%, and unsaturated fatty acid level was increased by 12.6%; as a result, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was higher by 31.7%. The butter produced from the milk of cows of the experimental group was slightly inferior to the control sample in terms of the characteristics of «taste and smell», «consistency» and total score. At the same time, the prototype fat differed from the control one by a more pronounced, saturated yellow color. Evaluation of the fatty acid composition of the experimental and control fat samples showed the advantage of the prototype in terms of PUFA content compared to the control. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded the same indicator for the control sample by 8.3%, while the superiority of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 14.4%. At the same time, saturated fatty acid level in the experimental sample was 4.2% less, but the amount of volatile low–molecular-weight fatty acids was significantly reduced compared to the control sample – by 19.1%.
Conclusion. The results obtained show the possibility and open the prospect of obtaining butter with a more favorable ratio of fatty acids in favor of PUFAs by selecting cows for milk with a higher ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and further selection aimed at an increased content of PUFAs in milk.
Vitamin content of apple juices and ciders made from them
The composition of apples is diverse and is represented by various compounds including vitamins. When processing apple fruits into ciders, vitamins take part in numerous biochemical processes and undergo significant changes.
The purpose of this research was to study the content of vitamins in apple juice and ciders produced from fruits of 30 varieties and forms of apple tree of domestic and foreign selection.
Material and methods. To obtain ciders, apples of various pomological varieties and elite forms were ground on a homogenizer separately under the same processing mode. Then the juice (wort) was separated from the pulp. After that, the wort of each apple variety was fermented separately under the same conditions using the Fruit yeast race (genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Erbsle Geisenheim, Germany) at a temperature of 18±1 °C. The mass concentration of B vitamins (B1, B2, B6 and PP) in juices and ciders was determined by high performance liquid chromatography, vitamin C and rutin – by capillary electrophoresis.
Results. It has been shown that the vitamin level depends of the apple varieties and the harvest time. Varieties with the highest concentrations of vitamins C, B group and rutin have been identified. Most of these varieties fell on apples of the autumn ripening period. The concentration of vitamins as a result of alcoholic fermentation has changed significantly. The concentration of vitamin C decreased by 2.4 times, B2 – by 1.5 times, B1 – by 1.3 times, PP and rutin – by 1.2 times. At the same time, vitamins B1 and B6 were not found in ciders produced from Amulet and Golden Summer apple varieties. Vitamin B6 was also not found in ciders from Vasilisa, Imrus, Soyuz, Champion apple varieties, and from 12/1-20-(16.17), 12/1-20-70, 12/2-20-33 forms.
Conclusion. The highest concentration of vitamins was determined in juices and ciders made from apples harvested in autumn. The apples varieties have been identified, the processing of which into ciders preserves the greatest amount of vitamins: Prikubanskoe, Bagryanec Kuban, Renet Platona, Orpheus, Margo, 12/3-21-28, 12/1-21-(6-8), 12/1-21-36, 12/1-20-4.