Вопросы питания № 3 2021

Problems of Nutrition

scientific and practical journal

Included in the List of the leading peer-reviewed journals and publications recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC) of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for publication of the results of theses for the degree of candidate or doctor of science.

3 . 2021
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Pathogenetic mechanisms for the development of hematological disorders in induced fatty liver disease in Wistar rats and assessment of the regulatory effects of carnosine and α-lipoic acid


The study of the relationship between hematopoiesis and metabolism is now particularly relevant in view of the high incidence of alimentary dependent diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this regard, pathogenetic factors of this disease development are studied actively in order to choose adequate drug therapy and usage of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties.

The aim of the study was to study the pathogenetic relationship of hematological disorders and imbalance of growth factors, leptin and ghrelin in male Wistar rats in the model of the initial stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development and to assess the regulatory effect of minor bioactive substances - carnosine and а-lipoic acid.

Material and methods. The studies were performed on male Wistar rats with initial body weight 150±10 g within 8 weeks. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=8 in each). Rats of the control group received a complete modified diet AIN93M, in which soybean oil was replaced with sunflower oil and lard (1:1). Rats of the experimental groups consumed high-calorie choline-deficient diet (HCCDD), in which fat content was 45%, fructose content - 20% of the energy value of the diet. Rats of the 2nd group were fed HCCDD without any supplements, the 3rd group - with the addition of carnosine (75 mg/kg body weight), the 4th group - with the addition of α-lipoic acid (75 mg/kg body weight), the 5th group - with the combined addition of carnosine and α-lipoic acid in a total dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Hematological values were determined on a hematological analyzer. The content of ghrelin and leptin, as well as growth factors GM- CSF and M- CSF in blood plasma and adipose tissue lysates, was determined by multiplex immunoassay using xMAP technology.

Results. Rat intake of HCCDD resulted in decreased hemoglobin levels and red blood cell scores compared to controls. Diet enrichment with carnosine and α-lipoic acid did not have a reliable effect on these indicators. Carnosine intake had a protective effect on erythrocyte volume, a decrease of which was recorded in other experimental groups. HCCDD stimulated the growth of the absolute number of leukocytes in peripheral blood due to granulocytes and mononuclears. The enrichment of HCCDD with carnosine and α-lipoic acid led to a further increase in leukocytosis, the maximum level of which was observed in the group of rats fed HCCDD, simultaneously enriched with carnosine and α-lipoic acid (14.86±1.48×109/l compared to 8.67±1.23×109/l in control). All diets used in the research had no effect on the number of erythrocytes and platelets in the peripheral blood of rats. The use of both HCCDD alone and in combination with carnosine or α-lipoic acid intake had a negative effect on the level of growth factors GM-CSF and M-CSF in blood plasma and adipose tissue. The consumption of HCCDD caused an increase in leptin blood level (8.54±0.69 compared to 2.58±0.37pg/ml in control, р<0.05), which was normalized by enriching the diet with carnosine and α-lipoic acid. Ghrelin blood level significantly decreased in all experimental groups compared to the control: by 30% in rats fed and by almost 50% when carnosine and α-lipoic acid were added to HCCDD. The intake of α-lipoic acid led to hormone level changes in adipose tissue lysates, leptin content decreased (2.31±0.11 vs 2.77±0.15 pg/ml), while ghrelin level significantly increased (0.35±0.14 vs 0.20±0.06 pg/ml), compared with the control group (р<0.05).

Conclusion. The revealed interrelation of parameters of the cellular composition of peripheral blood and hemoglobin content with the changes in the content of GM-CSF, M-CSF, leptin and ghrelin in blood plasma and adipose tissue indicates the mutual influence of the studied CSF, leptin, ghrelin and added antioxidants (carnosine and α-lipoic acid) on the regulatory mechanisms of hematopoiesis in rats fed HCCDD.

Gliadomorphin, casomorphin, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein in children with autism spectrum disorders


Diet therapy for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remains one of the most popular alternative therapies. despite conflicting opinions regarding the effectiveness of the dietary approach. According to the theory of exorphin intoxication, gluten and casein peptides enter the bloodstream through the mucous membrane of the small intestine, penetrate the blood-brain barrier and affect the neurons of the cerebral cortex. The well-known hypothesis of the relationship between autism and gluten intolerance is based on this theory.

The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the blood concentration of intestinal fatty acid - binding protein (I-FABP) and gliadomorphin and casomorphin as markers of opioid intoxication, depending on the use of diet therapy in children with ASD.

Material and methods. The study included 85 patients aged 3 to 15 years with an established diagnosis of ASD. The first group consisted of 36 children who followed a gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 6 months, 3 of them also followed a casein-free diet (CFD), the second group included 49 patients with ASD who had no dietary restrictions. The concentration of I-FABP, gliadomorphin, and casomorphin in the blood serum was determined by enzyme immunoassay in all patients.

Results. In children with ASD who followed GDD, the average values of the studied parameters were significantly lower than in patients with ASD who have no dietary restrictions: gliadomorphine - 0.98±1.27 vs 1.68±0.97 ng/ml, casomorphine - 1.62± 0.76 vs 2.37±0.53 pg/ml, I-FABP - 156.2±102.16 vs 528.26±255.95 pg/ml (p<0.01). In patients with ASD using diet therapy, there was a significant increase in gliadomorifin (r=0.64, p=0.0001) and casomorphin (r=0.53, p=0.001) with an increase in I-FABP. In children with ASD, not adhering GFD, there was also an increase in blood gliadomorphin (r=0.30, p=0.036) with an increase in I-FABP level; this trend was not observed relative to casomorphin (r=-0.0050, p=0.973). Perhaps, with the expansion of the sample, this pattern will also be observed in children who are on a regular diet.

Conclusion. When including diet therapy in the therapeutic treatment of autism, it is necessary to take into account the individual intolerance to gluten and casein, conduct additional examinations in order to specify the nature of the intolerance and the need to prescribe a diet.

Hygiene of nutrition

Risk assessment of glucoamylase and xylanase complex from Aspergillus awamori Xyl T-15


The introduction of methods for food production using microbial synthesis, including those obtained with the help of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms, at the present stage, allows to increase production volumes and reduce the cost of food. At the same time, such products in accordance with TR CU 021/2011 “On food safety” are classified as a “novel food”» and can be placed on the market only after its risk estimation for health. The emergence of new data and research methods in the last years has made it necessary to improve the risk assessment system for this category of food.

The aim of the research is to develope risk assessment approaches of food obtained by microbial synthesis on the example of the GM strain Aspergillus awamori Xyl T-15 and the enzyme preparation (EP) (a complex of glucoamylase and xylanase) produced by it.

Material and methods. Outbred ICR mice (CD-1) and Wistar rats (males and females) were used in the experimental studies. Investigations of GM strain A. awamori Xyl T-15 virulence and its ability to disseminate internal organs have been carried out. Acute and subacute (during 80 days) toxicity of EP (a complex of glucoamylase and xylanase) have been studied.

Results. The presented experimental data allow us to make a conclusion about the avirulence of the A. awamori Xyl T-15 strain, the lack of ability to disseminate internal organs (invasiveness). At the same time, the strain is characterized by the ability to produce mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). The EP, a complex of glucoamylase and xylanase from A. awamori Xyl T-15, has a low oral acute toxicity for rats (LD50>5000 mg/kg). Intragastric EP administration at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight during 80 days had not revealed adversely affect on the rate of weight gain in animals, indicators of anxiety and cognitive function, and some studied biochemical indicators. At a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. or more, there were changes in the relative mass of organs (lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands), small shifts in the parameters of erythropoiesis and leukocyte formula, at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. - an increase in oxidative DNA destruction. The most pronounced and dose-dependent was the effect of the EP on hepatocyte apoptosis. According to this indicator, the not observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for EP is not more than 100 mg/kg b.w. in terms of protein. The main target organ for the toxic effect of EP is the liver.

Conclusion. The data obtained demonstrate the necessity to conduct an additional analysis of the risks of possible negative effects of EP, namely, to study its impact on the gut microbiocenosis and the immune status of experimental animals, to analyze the presence of determinants of pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance, DNA of selective marker genes of A. awamori Xyl T-15 strain by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing methods.

Risk assessment for public health associated with nitrate content in crop products


The increasing need of the population for crop products (CP) makes continuous monitoring of nitrate content an increasingly urgent task. The accumulation of multidirectional data on the effect of nitrates on the state of the body requires further studies to assess the alimentary risk caused by their admission to the population of various regions.

The aim of the work was to study the levels of nitrate contamination of CP and assess the associated risk to the health of children and adults in the Baikal Region.

Material and methods. The characteristics of CP contamination with nitrates were given according to the results of socio-hygienic monitoring for 2015-2019. The exposure to nitrates was estimated according to the data of their chronic daily intake with RP. Reference exposure levels were used to calculate hazard quotients for different age groups of the population.

Results. The average number of annual studies in the Republic of Buryatia was 1000.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 887.4-1113.8], the proportion of CP with nitrate content in concentrations above the permissible level was observed on average with a frequency of 4.51% (95% CI 4.11-4.91), which was 3.6 fold higher than the Russian average for 2019 - 1.26%. The alimentary effect of nitrates on the adult population of the Republic of Buryatia, due to admission from CP, was estimated as permissible at the level of the average centile trend, and as unfavorable at the level of the 90th centile. In children, nitrate exposure lead to an unacceptable risk at the level of the average centile tendency of the content of the contaminant in CP, which exceeded 1.0. A comparative analysis of CP safety indicators revealed the priority of nitrate pollution in a number of areas of the Republic of Buryatia. The high levels of CP nitrate contamination are primarily caused by the entrance of local products to the consumer market of the Republic of Buryatia.

Conclusion. Taken together, the current situation poses a certain health risk and necessitates further in-depth study of the causes and factors of nitrate contamination. To reduce health risk assessment uncertainties, it is necessary to update data on CP consumption levels among different population groups, including preschool and infant children.

Minor antibiotics residues in food: what are the risks for consumers


The problem of contamination of foodstuffs with antibiotic residues does not lose its relevance everywhere, and the most widespread are the quantities of contaminants at the level of regulated values. This raises the concern of specialists in the field of production and processing of livestock products and initiates their appeal to scientific organizations of the hygienic profile for an explanation of the potential health risks associated with the consumption of low doses of antibiotics with food.

Material and methods. Analysis and synthesis of data from scientific sources and official documents in the field of assessing health risks when consuming antibiotics with food, with an emphasis on the effects of minor amounts [at the level of sub-inhibitory values below minimum inhibitory concentrations has been carried out.

Results and discussion. The issues of direct and indirect human exposure to antibiotics in low doses, including the formation of resistance of intestinal bacteria and the acceleration of the evolution of microbes, accumulation in the organism, the likelihood of allergic reactions, as well as preservation in foodstuffs during heat treatment, have been highlighted. The role of low doses of antibiotics as analogues of biologically active metabolites of bacteria is demonstrated, which, without exerting a toxic effect on the macroorganism, serve as triggers of changes in the microbial ecosystems of humans, animals and habitats through the mechanism of switching on regulation transcription in microbes and activation of horizontal transfer of genes encoding resistance and associated traits. The negativity of the disproportionately wide use of tetracyclines in agriculture, as the cause of the globalization of transferable resistance, has been emphasized, which was justified by the data on the ability of their sub-inhibitory doses to induce the expression of the largest number of mechanisms of its formation and most strongly provoke the horizontal transfer of linked genes between microbes. The need to preserve the current in the EAEU MRL for tetracyclines (≤0.01 mg/kgproduct), located in the concentration zone 0.05-0.1 minimum inhibitory concentrations for most sensitive bacteria, safe in terms of resistance induction, has been confirmed.

Conclusion. Adequate rationing of antibiotics in food is recognized as a risk management measure for both direct and indirect negative consequences for human health, since the need to ensure MRLs requires manufacturers to strictly adhere to doses, duration of use and withdrawal periods of drugs. This reduce the likelihood of developing resistance in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, the load of the environment by resistant microbes and their transmission along the food chain. The underlying establishment of microbiological acceptable daily intake should be improved by including the selection of intestinal bacteria co-resistance under the influence of a regulated drug, as a marker of the induction of horizontal transfer of resistance genes, in the biological endpoints of determining.

Influence of monosodium glutamate consumption by albino rats during pregnancy and lactation on their offspring


The consequences of dietary intake of significant amounts of monosodium glutamate (MSG) are the excess body weight; structural and functional disorders of the central nervous system, liver, kidneys. We have not found information about the influence of excessive using of the MSG by a woman during pregnancy and lactation on the fetus and infants.

The aim of the study was the experimental evaluation of the MSG consumption consequences during pregnancy and lactation to the offspring health.

Material and methods. The offspring of 3-month old pregnant female white Wistar rats, who received 1% MSG solution (200 mg per kg of body weight per day) ad libitum as the source of liquid during the pregnancy and lactation, have been studied (MSG group). The control group included offspring of pregnant female rats that received water as the source of liquid. In 25-day-old offspring histological examination and morphometry of the nucleo-nucleolar apparatus of neurons in the neocortex of the proper parietal lobe, cardiomyocytes of the subendocardial zones of the left and right ventricles have been performed. Gravimetry have been also carried out (body weight and weight of brain, heart, liver, kidney, thymus and spleen); mitotic activity of anterior corneal epithelium has been evaluated, the state of erythrocyte membranes have been analyzed by the method of acid erythrograms; behavioral tests “Open field”, “The elevated plus-maze test”, “Hanging on a horizontal wire” have been performed.

Results. MSG consumption during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase of brain (by 19.1%) and kidneys (by 7.8%) relative masses; masses of thymus and spleen were decreased. Significant decrease of locomotor activity and increase of time of hanging in “horizontal wire test” were registered. A histological study showed an increase in the number of nucleoli in the neurons of the V layer of the neocortex of the proper parietal lobe (control - 1.56±0.09; MSG group - 1.81±0.07, р=0.03); decrease of the nucleolar parameters of cardiomyocytes; increase of mitotic activity of anterior corneal epithelium (control - 4.021±0.612‰; MSG group -6.985±0.889‰, р=0.019). A decrease of the resistance of erythrocyte membranes to acid hemolysis was also registered.

Conclusion. The results obtained indicate the effect of oral consumption of MSG food additive during pregnancy and lactation on the organism of the offspring.

The prevalence of obesity in various socio-demographic groups of the population of Russia


The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been recognized by WHO as a global obesity pandemic worldwide. The spread of overweight and obesity is also an urgent problem for Russia.

The aim of this study was to analyze the nutritional status of the Russian adult population and the prevalence of overweight and obesity depending on a number of socio-demographic factors and family income.

Material and methods. The assessment of the nutritional status of adults was carried out on the basis of anthropometric parameters obtained by the Federal State Statistics Service in the course of the “Sample observation of the population’s diet” in 2018 based on a random sample of 45 thousand households in all constituent entities of the Russian Federation. 76.960 people aged 19 and over were examined, including 41% of men and 59% of women. The nutritional status of adults was assessed based on the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). According to the WHO classification, BMI values in the range of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 were taken as normal, BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 was taken as overweight, and BMI≥30.0 kg/m2 indicated obesity. The prevalence of obesity was analyzed depending on socio-demographic variables: gender, age, place of residence (city, village, type of settlement in terms of population, federal district), marital status, educational level, and per capita income.

Results. The body weight and height of respondents with a BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 can be considered as the average normal body weight and height of the adult population in Russia, which amounted to 70.6 kg and 175.4 cm for men, and 60.2 kg and 164 cm for women, respectively. The average body weight of all urban men is 1.3 kg more than that of rural men, while the average body weight of urban women is 2.2 kg less than that of rural women. The growth of urban men and women, respectively, is 2.1 cm and 1.1 cm higher than rural ones. The average BMI values of urban and rural men do not differ, while the BMI of rural women is 1.2 kg/m2 higher than that of urban ones reflecting higher values of the average body weight. The average BMI values of adult men and women are in the zone of values characteristic of overweight (BMI≥25.0 kg/m2). In general, in 2018, only 34.4% of the adult population (33.2% of men and 35.4% of women) had BMI indices corresponding to normal values. Overweight, including obesity (BMI≥25.0 kg/m2), were detected in 66.1%, men and 63.0% of women, and obesity (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2) in 18.8% of men and 27.4% women. The incidence of obesity among adults of both sexes is significantly higher among rural residents, while the incidence of overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) does not differ. The prevalence of obesity in urban and rural areas decreases with the increase in their population. The frequency of overweight increases with growth in households' average per capita income with high reliability of differences between the 1st and the 5th quintiles of income (p<0.01). At the same time, the incidence of obesity increases from the 1st to the 3rd quintiles, decreasing in the 4th and the 5th quintiles. For men, the dependence of the average BMI values on household income is almost square with high reliability (p<0.001), while for women, a decrease in BMI was revealed only in the 5th quintile of income. Thus, the incidence of obesity among women in the richest population groups is lower than in the less affluent. The incidence of obesity in men increases linearly with age from 19 to 65, and decreases in the age group over 70 years. In women, the frequency of obesity from 19 to 40 years old increases slowly, then there is a rapid increase up to 65 years, and then, like in men, there is a decrease. In young men, the frequency of overweight, including obesity (BMI≥25.0 kg/m2), is 32.3% at the age of 19-25, and 49.3% at the age of 25-30, which, respectively, by 13.1 and 20.0% higher than among women of the same age. Moreover, the frequency of obesity in these age groups of men and women is the same. The highest incidence of BMI≥25.0 kg/m2 in men is observed over 40 (70-76%); in women over 50 (75-83%). The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2) before the age of 50 is approximately the same in men and women, while over the age of 50, the frequency of obesity in women is 12-16% higher than in men. Over the age of 65, there is a decrease of obesity in both sexes, but the incidence remains significantly higher among women than men of a similar age. The prevalence of obesity among urban and rural men in all age groups from 19 to 70 years does not differ significantly. Among rural women the frequency of obesity is significantly higher compared to urban women. Education level affects the prevalence of obesity only in women: the incidence of obesity among women with higher education is considerably lower than among women with less education.

Conclusion. Significant differences in the state of nutrition and the prevalence of obesity were revealed depending on the place of residence in urban and rural settlements, the type of settlements in terms of population and the Federal Districts. Noteworthy, there was a significant 10.2% increase in the prevalence of overweight in men in 2018 compared to 2012, while the increase in women was 6.2%. In general, the frequency of overweight increased by 7.8%, amounting to 40.3%. The prevalence of obesity increased in men by 0.9%, while in women decreased by 3.3%. As a result, throughout the adult population, the prevalence of obesity decreased by 1.4%. Based on the available two studies, it is not possible to assert with confidence about the trend of decreasing the prevalence of obesity from 2012 to 2018.

Diet treatment

Assessment of nutritive status and its correction in oncological patients after operations in the hepatopancreatoduodenal zone


Surgical interventions in the hepatopancreatoduodenal zone in cancer patients are associated with high risk of nutritional deficiency in the postoperative period. This feature is due to both the volume of the operation itself (pancreatoduodenectomy), and the predominance of catabolic processes in the early postoperative period. In this regard, the monitoring of the main indicators of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism in the early postoperative period becomes fundamental for choosing the correct tactics of nutritional support for this patients.

Aim. Improvement of the nutritional status of cancer patients after operations carried out in the hepatopancreatoduodenal zone in connection with malignant neoplasms by means of a comprehensive comparative analysis of the effectiveness of isolated enteral, iso - latedparenteral and mixed types of nutritional support in the early postoperative period.

Material and methods. The examination included 40 patients with an average age of 44.5±6.8 years (15 men, 25 women). All patients for analysis were divided into two groups: the first, the main - patients receiving strictly enteral and/or probe nutrition (n=21), the second, control - isolated parenteral nutrition (n=19). The dynamic of the main predictors of nutritional status in the early postoperative period was assessed: the level of total blood protein, including albumin, lymphocyte count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, their ratio - the de Ritis coefficient (as indirect criterion of cytolytic syndrome), total bilirubin. The analysis included the time interval of the enteral and parenteral nutrition in the early postoperative period, together with the number of bed-days required to correct the nutritional status in these patients in an intensive care unit. To objectify and clarify the dynamics of the nutritional status of patients in the pre- and postoperative period, we used the generally accepted scales for assessing nutritional status - Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) Nutritional Risk Index (NRI).

Results. According to the SGA and NRI rating scales, the overwhelming majority of patients in the main and control groups (85.7% and 94.7%, respectively) had a normal nutritional status before the operation. In the postoperative period, 4 (21%) patients in the control group showed signs of moderate malnutrition by day 12, which regressed after the enteral nutritional support was connected. There were no statistically significant changes in nutritional status in patients of the main group. The basal metabolic rate in patients of both groups had no statistical differences before surgery (2296±279 kcal/day). On the 15th day of the postoperative period, its increase by 394 kcal/day was recorded in the main group, in the control group an increase in the basal metabolic rate was observed only with the addition of the enteral component of nutritional support, on average, by 321 kcal/day. There was no statistically significant decrease in the level of blood lymphocytes in patients of the main group (p=0.289) in comparison with the traced tendency to lymphopenia (p=0.019) in patients of the control group. The patients of the main group showed a slower regression of the ALT activity, and, accordingly, less increase in the de Ritis coefficient.

Conclusion. In patients operated in the hepatopancreatoduodenal zone due to malignant neoplasms, in the early postoperative period, the enteral administration of nutritional mixtures may be preferable, both as an isolated method of nutritional support and as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, given its positive effect on the gastrointestinal tract passage, the level of basal metabolism, the state of the protein-synthetic function of the liver and, indirectly, the degree of cytolytic syndrome.

Diet therapy program for weight loss and assessment of its effectiveness in overweight and obese persons


The basic method of obesity treatment is diet therapy aimed at long-term maintenance of negative energy balance by restricting the caloric intake of the diet.

The aim - to evaluate the effectiveness of the diet therapy program for weight loss with the use of a complex of amino acids and glucomannan.

Material and methods. To conduct the study, in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a sample of 33 overweight or obese people was formed, of which 30 people (16 men and 14 women) took part in the study. The age of the persons included in the study ranged from 20 to 59 years (average 41.0±1.73 years), body mass index- from 26.4 to 45.5 kg/m2 (average 35.5±0.8 kg/m2), waist circumference as a criterion for abdominal obesity - 110.4±2.4 cm. Participants three times a day (7.00-9.00, 12.00-14.00 and 16.00-18.00) received within 14 days 15 g of powder dissolved in 200 ml of water containing whey protein concentrate, potassium (618 mg in the form of citrate), glucomannan, taurine (290 mg), zinc (2.5 mg in the form of sulfate), vitamins B6 (1.4 mg) and B12 (3 mcg), and 2 capsules containing L-isoleucine (340 mg), L-ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate (290 mg), L-citrulline-DL-malate (290 mg) and L-tryptophan (80 mg). In the evening, the main meal was dinner, which included a protein dish with vegetables and herbs. The energy value of the evening meal was 400 kcal (1675 kJ), the proportion of protein, fat and carbohydrates was 40, 30 and 30%, respectively, of the calorie content of the evening meal.

Results. It was shown that the use of a 14-day course of the diet therapy program to reduce body weight was accompanied by a statistically significant decrease in body weight on average 6.3% of the initial level, an improvement in body composition indicators (a rather pronounced decrease in body fat mass by 9.2%, p<0.001, with a smaller decrease in lean body mass and skeletal muscle mass, respectively by 3.9 and 4.1%, p<0.001) and metabolic blood parameters (a decrease in serum glucose concentration, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin andgamma-glutamyltransferase by 12.5, 15.0, 35.0,22.8 and 34.6% respectively).

Conclusion. Application of the diet therapy program for weight loss «Non-invasive liposuction» allows us to recommend its use in obese patients in order to increase the effectiveness of therapeutic and prophylactic measures in correcting excess body weight, improving the parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and the functional state of the biliary system.

Assessment of the professional community awareness about innovative diets prescribed for hypertension


Due to the fact of constantly increasing incidence of arterial hypertension and the large role of nutrition in the treatment and prevention of this disease, the assessment of the awareness of the medical community and patients about the trends in the development of therapeutic and prophylactic diets is relevant.

The aim of the research was to assess the physician and patient awareness on the trends in the development of therapeutic and prophylactic diets and different rations prescribed for hypertension prevention.

Material and methods. On the SurveyMonkey platform, questionnaires were created for different medical specialties and patient of various departments. Access to the survey was free, the mailing list was carried out through the professional communities of physicians on the Internet. In turn, the doctors-respondents were asked to distribute the link for patients among those who were undergoing treatment or were on dispensary observation for the pathology of the cardiovascular system. Respondents were asked about their attitudes, knowledge, and compliance with existing dietary guidelines. The number of respondents was 300 doctors of various specialties and 300 patients.

Results. The most recognizable dietary recommendations among patients were: low-calorie (41.1%), low-carbohydrate (39.4%), vegetarian (39.0%). However, the most popular (the commitment to them was the greatest) were: low in calories (27.6%), low in carbohydrates (25.6%), low in fat (24.4%). Among the doctors, the distribution was as follows - in addition to the classic therapeutic and prophylactic diets prescribed for certain diseases, the most recognizable diets were: Mediterranean (59.8%), low-calorie (59.0%), low-fat (57.3%); and the most commonly prescribed: Mediterranean (47.0%), low-carb (44.4%), low-fat (40.2%). The most recognizable dietary pattern among patients was the low-calorie diet (adherence to it was also maximum). As for physicians, the most recognized and most recommended preventively was the Mediterranean eating pattern. At the same time, the prevalence and recognition of the DASH diet, which, according to the opinion of the world community, has the most pronounced preventive and therapeutic properties, according to the survey, was low (7.3% of the respondents were aware of this diet).

Conclusions. According to the results of this work, it is necessary to consider the possibility of combining three diets (low-calorie, Mediterranean and DASH diets) to achieve the maximum therapeutic and preventive effect while maintaining popularity among patients.

Evaluation of the chemopreventive potential of polyprenols from the needles of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. using the model of prostate carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats


For decades, one of the most popular ideas in reducing the burden of cancer worldwide is the idea of cancer chemoprevention with low-toxic agents. There is an evidence that polyprenols (polyisoprenoid alcohols) are perspective agents for cancer chemoprevention. The aim of the study is to investigate anticancer activity of the polyprenol complex (the main polyprenols are prenol-14, prenol-15, prenol-16 and prenol-17) against prostate cancer (PCa) and its precursor (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, PIN).

Material and methods. For induction of prostate carcinogenesis we used modified protocol of two-stage model. Mature male Wistar rats were administrated with single intravenous injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and chronic intraperitoneal injections of four testosterone esters following surgical castration. Animals with an initial body weight of328+39 g were randomized into 3 groups: experimental group (n=32) - animals received polyprenols complex 12.5 mg/kg per os diluted in vegetable oil 5 days a week; control group (n=38) - animals received vehicle (vegetable oil) 0.5 ml per os 5 days a week; intact group (n=12) - animals without intervention. Duration of the experiment was 56 weeks. At the end of the study and in euthanized animals in terminal state as well, the prostate and seminal vesicles were processed by histological technique and serial step sections of all lobes were assessed blindly by two independent pathologists. Incidence and multiplicity of precancerous lesion (PIN) and prostate tumors were calculated.

Results. Compared with the control group, long-term consumption of polyprenols significantly reduced the overall incidence of PIN from 76.5 to 44.8% (р=0.0183; relative risk, RR=0.59; 95% CI 0.38-0.91), multiplicity of PIN per rat per group by 48.4% (р=0.0081), the incidence of PIN in 2 or 3 lobes of the prostate from 55.9 to 27.6% (р=0.0402), the incidence of PIN in the dorsolateral prostate from 70.6 to 41.4% (р=0.0240), the incidence of PIN in the ventral lobe from 47.1 to 20.7% (р=0.0362). The polyprenol complex exhibited a pronounced anticancer effect against induced prostate tumors. In the group of animals receiving the tested agent, there was a significant decrease in the total incidence of PCa from 64.7 to 34.5% (р=0.0234; RR=0.53; 95% CI 0.30-0.93), as well as the multiplicity of PCa per rat per group and per PIN carrier by 63.4% (р=0.0024) and by 30.6% (р=0.0240) respectively. In the polyprenols group we observed significant decrease in the incidence of prostate cancer in 2 or 3 lobes from 32.4 to 6.9% (р=0.0147) and the incidence of PCa in the dorsolateral prostate from 58.8 to 24.1% (р=0.0101). Oral administration of polyprenols provided a nonsignificant trend towards a decrease in the incidence of metastatic prostate cancer from 32.4 to 20.7% (р=0.3962).

Conclusion. Chronic oral consumption of polyprenols from the needles of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. (12.5 mg/kg per day) significantly suppresses the development of PIN and PCa induced by MNM and a mixture of testosterone esters in male Wistar rats. Despite the exploratory nature of the study, our results can serve the rationale for further investigation of polyprenols in prostate cancer chemoprevention trials.

Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Research of quality indicators of confectionery paste with sunflower flour


Confectionery products are in constant steady demand among various categories of consumers. This group of foodstuffs has a low nutritional and high energy value, contains a large amount of fats and carbohydrates with an insignificant content of essential micronutrients. In this regard, research on the modernization of recipes and technologies for confectionery products enriched with essential nutrients, especially with the use of secondary products of food processing, remains relevant.

The aim of the research was to study quality indicators of sunflower flour and confectionery paste produced from it.

Material and methods. The main objects of the study were flour obtained from sunflower oil cake after extracting oil by cold pressing, and confectionery paste based on it. Measurement of mass fractions of moisture, sugar, fat, protein and fiber, determination of amino acid composition and viscosity, organoleptic and safety indicators (the content of toxic elements, mycotoxins and pesticides, sanitary and microbiological indicators) have been carried out. A study of the viscosity of the confectionery paste and rheological parameters have been performed. The shelf life of the finished product was determined using the “accelerated aging” technique, which was confirmed by test data under standard conditions.

Results. The study of the chemical composition of sunflower flour showed that the content of protein fluctuate from 39.0 to 45.0%, fiber - from 10.0 to 15.0%, fat - from 7.0 to 12.0%, mass the proportion of moisture wa from 2.0 to 6.0%. The total content of essential amino acids in sunflower flour (6.64 g/100 g) was 16% of the total protein content. Based on the analysis of variance, mathematical models were obtained that described the dependences of the acid and peroxide values of sunflower flour on the processing temperature and the duration of its exposure; it was found that the optimal conditions for heat treatment of flour were the processing temperature - 60 °C, the exposure time - 30 min. The optimal dosage of prescription components has been established based on the organoleptic and rheological characteristics of the confectionery paste. A commodity assessment of the developed confectionery paste was carried out in terms of organoleptic and physic-chemical quality indicators. The studies of safety indicators, including microbiological ones, made it possible to conclude that the paste fully meets the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 021/2011 “On food safety”. To predict the shelf life of the paste in order to save time, the accelerated aging technique at elevated temperature was applied, which includes an analysis of the quality of the sample using the Van’t Hoff rule and the Arrhenius equation. The study results were extrapolated to normal storage conditions. A study of the storage of confectionery paste under normal conditions at standard temperature regimes confirmed the results obtained using the accelerated aging technique. Studies of the chemical composition and nutritional value of the developed confectionery paste showed that it contained fats, proteins, which are a source of essential amino acids, and mineral substances. The shelf life of confectionery paste with sunflower flour at a temperature of 20±3 °C and a relative humidity of no more than 75% for no more than 10 months has been established.

Conclusion. The complex research carried out has demonstrated that the use of sunflower flour in the production of confectionery paste makes it possible to obtain a product with high consumer characteristics and increased nutritional value.

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Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
Medicine today

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