Вопросы питания № 5 2021

Problems of Nutrition

scientific and practical journal

Included in the List of the leading peer-reviewed journals and publications recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC) of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for publication of the results of theses for the degree of candidate or doctor of science.


Content
5 . 2021
Lead article

The global challenge of the XXI century - COVID-19: the answer of dietetics

Annotation

For the first time, the world is facing a global threat to humanity and unprecedented challenges associated with the spread of COVID -19. The fight against the new coronavirus infection requires the joint efforts of the entire world community and equal cooperation. The entire healthcare system is working today in a mobilization format. During the ongoing pandemic, the issue of nutrition of the population remains relevant. Increasing the adaptive potential of the body by optimizing nutrition is a necessity.

Reviews

Possible mechanisms of impaired post-vaccination immune response in obesity

Annotation

Obese people are at high risk of developing infections, including COVID-19, and are prone to a more severe course and a poorer prognosis of diseases. The review summarizes information on the post-vaccination immune response in obesity in children and adults with infections. The SARS-COV-2 pandemic further exacerbates this problem of the adequacy of the immune response to vaccination of obese people.

The purpose of this review is to present and summarize information on the changes in various links of cellular and humoral immunity in the experiment and in the clinic during the immune response to vaccination in obesity.

Results. The mechanisms of action of obesity and associated chronic inflammation and metabolic dysregulation on the post-vaccination immune response in various infections are discussed. The systemic inflammatory response that occurs in obesity represents a barrier to the induction of a sustained immune response. In obese individuals, innate and adaptive immune responses are slowed down and diminished, contributing to the spread of infections.

Conclusion. In obesity, the differentiation and proliferation of cells of the immune system is impaired, and the immune response to vaccination changes. Further research is needed to study post-vaccination immunity in obesity, taking into account the effect on the vaccination of the microbiota of a particular person, the presence of possible comorbid conditions.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Liver gene expression in normal and obese rats received resveratrol and L-carnitine

Annotation

The use of nutraceuticals with anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activity in the composition of foods for special dietary uses and dietary supplements is one of the effective methods of dietary therapy of alimentary obesity and related diseases.

The aim was to study the effect of the combined intake of resveratrol and L-carnitine (RC) on the expression of genes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and inflammatory reactions in the liver and kidneys of rats in normal conditions and with diet-induced obesity.

Material and methods. Male Wistar rats received for 63 days a standard balanced diet or a high-fat-high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) with an excess of total fat (30%) and fructose (20% solution instead of drinking water), or the same diets supplemented with RC in a low (25 mg/kg body weight as resveratrol and 300 mg/kg as L-carnitine) or high (50 and 600 mg/kg body weight, respectively) doses. The expression of genes (Khk, Gck, Pklr, Acaca, Acacb, Fasn, Scd, Srebfl, Mlxipl, Ppara, Pparg, Actb, Gapdh) in liver cells was studied by the method of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The distribution of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2) and intercellular adhesion molecule type 2 (ICAM-2) in the liver and kidneys was assessed by confocal laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry.

Results. Increased expression of Fasn (fatty acid synthase) in rats treated with high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) decreased under RC intake. RC consumption caused a decrease in the number of TAT-, NRF-2- and ICAM-2-positive cells in the liver of rats treated with HFCD, but had the opposite effect in the kidneys. The consumption of RC at the low dose by rats fed HFCD caused changes in the expression profiles of the studied marker genes, indicating a possible hypolipidemic effect. However, observed increased expression of lipogenic genes in the liver and elevated level of NRF-2 and ICAM-2 in kidney against the background of consumption of RC with the standard balanced diet cannot be assessed as unambiguously positive.

Conclusion. Thus, possible negative effects caused, most likely, by the interaction of nutraceuticals with various mechanisms of action should be taken into account when developing formulations of dietary supplements and foods for special dietary uses for dietary therapy of obesity.

Investigation of the physiological and biochemical effectiveness of plasmalogens and astaxanthin in microencapsulated form

Annotation

Plasmalogens and astaxanthin have a wide range of biological effects, including pronounced antioxidant properties. One of the main disadvantages of using these biologically active lipids is their low stability, which leads to a decrease in biological activity in vivo. The aim of the work was the study of the physiological and biochemical effectiveness of plasmalogens and astaxanthin in microencapsulated form.

Methods. The experiment was conducted using 70 male Wistar rats during 60 days. The first 28 days of the experiment animals received modified diet with lowered content of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E, via excluding fat-soluble vitamin mixture and sunflower oil from the diet. On the 29th day of the experiment, the animals were divided into groups. Standard fat-soluble vitamin mixture and sunflower oil were added into the diet of one group (K2 group), two other groups received emulsions, containing plasmalogens (0.80%), astaxanthin (0.04%) and fat-soluble vitamins in native (G3 group) or microcapsulated (G4 group) forms instead of sunflower oil (5.0% of the diet). During the next 32 days of the experiment, the animals’ grip strength was measured; anxiety and motor activity were assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests; cognitive functions were assessed in the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. In the blood serum, the level of corticosterone, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), malone dialdehyde, hydroperoxides, and total antioxidant activity were determined.

Results. A significant increase in the grip strength in animals treated with an emulsion with encapsulated plasmalogens and astaxanthin indicates animal endurance growth. In the Morris water maze test, animals of the same group showed the best learning ability, which indicates an improvement in cognitive functions. A significant more than 3-fold decrease in blood corticosterone level in the animals treated with plasmalogens and astaxanthin, regardless of the form of administration, in comparison with the indicator of animals in the control groups, indicates an adaptogenic effect and requires further study. The consumption of the emulsions led to a significant improvement in lipid metabolism: a significant decrease in serum cholesterol by 20% was shown, against the background of a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol by 25%.

Conclusion. The beneficial effect of including the experimental emulsion in the diet is expressed in improving memory and cognitive functions, increasing muscle tone and the static component of endurance in male Wistar rats.

Hygiene of nutrition

The comprehensive studies of Hermetia illucens larvae protein’s biological value

Annotation

A high protein content in the insect biomass allows to classify this product as a very promising source of protein, comparable in nutritional and biological value with proteins of animal origin. Despite a long history of safe use, in some countries insects are considered a new type of food which safety must be proven before entering the food market. The long-term Russian experience in novel food’s research allows to identify the crucial stages, among which, along with toxicological and allergological tests, the protein’s biological value determination takes an important place. The conclusion about the biological value of protein is formed on the basis of integrated use of chemical and biological methods, which gist comes down to the study of the nitrogen balance in the growing organism (biological method) and the calculation of the amino acid score (chemical method).

The aim of the research was the comprehensive assessment of Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae protein’s biological value using chemical and biological methods.

Material and methods. Biological studies based on measuring of net protein ratio/net protein utilization were performed on 28 growing (between 25-50 days of life) male Wistar rats, with an initial body weight of ~65.5±1.2 g. Rats in the control group (n=14) received a semi-synthetic casein diet with a protein content of ~ 12% in calories, the test group (n=14) received a diet including an equivalent amount of H. illucens protein. The diet’s ingredients were replaced with the consideration of the proteins, fats, and carbohydrates content in the included product following the principle of isocaloricity and isonitrogenicity (by mass fraction of total nitrogen). H. illucens biomass and casein in the test and control groups, respectively, were the main significant sources of nitrogen in the diet. Body weight, feed intake, and fecal and urine nitrogen losses were measured during the experiment. The biological value and digestibility of protein were judged by coefficients of protein efficiency ratio, net protein ratio, true protein digestibility, true protein biological value, true net protein utilization. Chemical studies included studies of the amino acid composition of H. illucens biomass protein and calculation of the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS).

Results. The general condition of animals of the both groups during the whole experiment was satisfactory, the weekly body weight increase corresponded to the level of growth typical for Wistar rats, intergroup differences were not detected. Despite the fact that in a number of indicators the test group animals differed from the control [there were noted a decrease of the net protein ratio (by 5%, p>0.05), true protein digestibility (by 11%, p<0.05), netprotein utilization (by 13%, p<0.05), caused by increased excretion of nitrogen with urine (by 8%, p>0.05) and feces (by 186%, p<0.05), with the same amount of nitrogen intake], the test rats’ growth rate and the nitrogen’s retention degree indicate a relatively high biological value of insect protein. According to the DIAAS, H. illucens protein is characterized by high content of histidine, threonine, valine, isoleucine and leucine (DIAAS=100 and more), and is also a source of sulfur-containing amino acids - methionine and cysteine (DIAAS=86) and lysine (DIAAS=97).

Conclusion. The comprehensive studies of Hermetia illucens larvae protein’s biological value demonstrated a high protein content, its balanced amino acid composition and high biological value, which allows to consider Hermetia illucens as a potential source of complete dietary protein.

Quality of life of obese preschoolers

Annotation

The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence tends to increase, and its presence is associated with a change in the quality of life (QOL). Nevertheless, the question of the influence of obesity on the QOL of Russian children in preschool years remains unexplored, while this age refers to the period of obesity manifestation.

Purpose of the study - to examine the quality of life of preschool children with obesity and determine the optimal methods of disease preventing.

Material and methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the QOL of preschool children. The test group included children with primary exogenous (alimentary) obesity of grade 1, who underwent outpatient treatment in a polyclinic (n=40, 43% girls). The control group included children of I-II health categories with body mass index (BMI) of the 25-85th percentile (n=40, 50% girls). The diagnosis was verified based on the BMI, considering gender and age ≥95 percentile and Z-score ranging from +2.0 to +2.5. We assessed QOL based on the general PedsQL 4.0 questionnaire adapted for Russian-speaking users. As a result, we received the characteristics of physical (PF), emotional (EF), social (SF), and role (RF) functioning in the presence of the disease and without it. When categorizing the QOL level, we used the following intervals: 100 to 91 points - high level of QOL, 90 to 81 - medium level, 80 to 71 - low level, less than 70 - very low level.

Results. It was found out that the average value of the generalized QOL indicator according to self-reports in the group of obese children was 20.3% lower (p<0.01) than in the group of healthy children and did not exceed 70 points, which corresponded to a very low QOL level. The absolute difference between groups exceeds the criterion of clinical significance. In the course of detailed analysis, the lowest values were obtained for EF indicators (65.3±21.6 points) with a relative difference in the control group of up to 21.6% (p<0.01). The emotional component was closely related to SF (r=0.63, р<0.01), PF (r=0.67, р<0.01) and RF (r=0.61, р<0.01). The parents of the children with obesity assessed their QOL at a very low level (on the average at 64.4±19.2 points), which was 21.5% lower (p<0.01) than the same indicator according to the estimates given by the parents of healthy children.

Conclusion. Therefore, preschool children with obesity are aware of the limitations associated with the disease and point out a particularly low level of functioning, primarily emotional. The QOL indicators of the children with obesity were 19-22% lower than that of their healthy peers. The opinions of the parents were consistent with the self-reports the children provided. Due to the rapid increase in obesity among children, it is advisable to promote systematic educational programs on healthy eating developed as part of the national project for disease prevention.

Features of the nutritional status and nutrition of children with autistic disorders

Annotation

In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the number of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Ministry of Health of Russia, the incidence of ASD in children under 2 years of age is 5:10 000, at the age of 4 years - 18:10 000. ASD is a complex multisystem disease that affects metabolic and neurobiologicalprocesses. The aim of the research was to analyze the dietary habits of children with autism spectrum disorders.

In ASD, physical developmental disorders occur, both in the direction of increasing and decreasing body weight, which is accompanied by pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and eating disorders. Diseases of the digestive system are associated with both inflammatory and functional disorders in the GIT, changes in the immune status, autonomic tone of the nervous system and the composition of the GIT microbiota. Eating disorders in children with ASD lead to negative changes in the child’s nutritional status and aggravates the course of gastrointestinal diseases. Nutritional status in children with ASD is characterized by an excess of calories in the diet (or a sharp decrease in it), excessive consumption of fat, sugar and salt, deficiency of vitamins, carotenoids, mineral substances (calcium in 45.1%, lithium in 30-35%, potassium in 70% of children with ASD). It has been found that nutritional deficiencies in ASD exacerbate neuropsychiatric symptoms. Lack of vitamins leads to metabolic disorders, delayed physical and mental development, rapid fatigue, endocrine dysfunction, and aggravation of the symptoms of ASD.

Conclusion. Nutritional adjustments in children with ASD can lead to an improvement in non-verbal IQ and a decrease in the clinical manifestations of autism. The issue of developing recommendations for the organization of nutrition for children with ASD in educational institutions remains highly relevant.

The study of the informativeness and reliability of the healthy eating index for assessing of dietary peculiarity and eating behavior of Russian population

Annotation

For the integral assessment of diet, tools have been proposed, called nutritional quality indices, and, as separate options, healthy eating indices (HEI), which assess diets in relation to compliance with existing national recommendations for healthy eating for the population.

The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability and reliability of the developed baseline HEI for assessing the nature of the diet, modifications of the diet and eating behavior of the population.

Methods. To analyze the suitability and reliability of the HEI for assessing the features of dietary intake and eating behavior of the population, the data on the actual nutrition and eating behavior of adults 19+ years of both sexes obtained by Rosstat in 2013 and 2018 have been used. Along with using the 24-hour food replay method to study actual food intake, the questionnaires included a form for assessing the frequency of consumption of major food groups in a standard format: daily or several times a week, once a week, several times a month, once a month or less often, practically do not consume.

Results. The average HEI values for women in all food consumption groups are significantly higher than for men (p<0.01). Changes in average HEI values depending on the level of consumption of various products are multidirectional. When foods such as grains, vegetables and fruits are consumed in quantities greater than the median, the HEI is significantly higher than when consumed at less than the median level. On the contrary, when consuming more than the median of meat products, fatty products and confectionery products, as well as for those who consumed sausages, the HEI for both women and men is significantly lower than for those who consumed less than the median or did not consume these products. The average HEI values in men and women who consumed cottage cheese, kefir or yogurt are significantly higher than among those who did not consume these foods. Significantly higher HEI values were found in vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. The average HEI values of adults of both sexes in autumn are significantly higher than in spring, which is confirmed by the significantly higher consumption of vegetables and fruits in autumn, which are com-ponents-indicators of the integral HEI. The dependence of the HEI values on the frequency of consumption of the main food groups, which are its components or affect the consumption of components, has been shown. The higher the frequency of consumption of meat products, butter, salad dressings, chocolate and sweets or sweet carbonated drinks the lower is the HEI. On the other hand, the higher the frequency of consumption of vegetables, fruits, milk, fermented milk, cottage cheese or curd the higher is the HEI.

Conclusion. The changes in the values of the HEI at various values, as well as the frequency, of food consumption indicate the possibility of HEI using as a marker for assessing the relationship between diet, health status and the incidence of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

Nutrional value of the national dairy product kurut and its place in the nutrition of adolescents of the Kyrgyz Republic

Annotation

Kurut is a universal fermented milk product that is added as a seasoning to various dishes and is consumed as a separate meal. It is a good source of macro- and micronutrients in an easily assimilated form, contributing to the maintenance of beneficial intestinal microflora. The product is popular among children and adults in Kyrgyz Republic, and is in great demand as a healthy food. In this regard, the study of the nutritional value and quality of kurut is an urgent task.

The purpose of the work was to study the nutritional value of the national fermented milk product kurut, and to assess its place in the daily diet of adolescents.

Material and methods. The content of protein, fats, mineral substances and table salt in 8 types of most common kurut has been determined. The determination of protein was carried out by the Kjeldahl method, fat - by the Soxhlet method, mineral substances -by the atomic emission spectrometry method, and sodium chloride - by the titrimetric method. To study the eating behavior and frequency of kurut consumption, a questionnaire survey of 7251 schoolchildren aged 14 to 18 from different regions of the Kyrgyz Republic (41.8% of boys and 58.2% of girls) has been conducted.

Results and discussion. According to the results of the survey, all teenagers noted that they had tasted kurut at least once and they liked its salty and sour taste. The total number of schoolchildren consuming kurut averaged 80.1% (87.3% in the southern regions, 80.6% in highlands and 72.5% in the northern regions). The proportion of children who consume kurut daily and do not consume kurut was the same and equals 20.9 and 19.9%, respectively. Regular kurut consumption (1-2 times a week and 1-2 times a month) was noted with the same frequency in adolescents (on average, 29.4 and 29.8%, respectively). The adolescents indicated that they buy kurut in a retail network and from private traders in markets and other accessible outlets. According to the results of our work, the mass fraction of protein in the studied kurut samples averaged 14.6±0.1% (the standard indicator is not less than 16.0%), which covers the daily requirement in protein by an average of 16.9%. Fat mass fraction was 1.8±0.1% (standard value 1.0-26.0%) and covered the daily requirement in fats by an average of 2.05%. Mineral composition of kurut practically corresponded to the composition of dairy products, however, the content of table salt was increased, especially in the home kurut (3.5 times) from the established standards (2-3%). In industrial kuruts “Kinder” and “Baatyr”, the content of table salt was almost 2 fold lower than in home kurut, amounting to 5.8-5.9%.

Conclusion. Kurut is a national fermented milk product popular among teenagers, which is a good source of minerals and trace elements. The increased content of table salt, especially in home-made kurut, indicates the need for explanatory communication work among children and adolescents, since frequent consumption of kurut can cause the development of alimentary diseases in childhood and in the subsequent years of a person’s life. It is also necessary to carry out sanitary and educational work among the population to comply with the technology for preparing the product, especially by reducing the amount of added table salt.

Genetically determined trehalase deficiency in various population groups of Russia and neighboring countries

Annotation

Due to the low specificity and sensitivity of non-invasive clinical tests trehalose malabsorption remained out of sight of gastroenterologists. Therefore, the specialists regard this disorder as rare. Trehalose became widely used in the food industry as a harmless sucrose substitute, sweetener and stabilizer. After the discovery of the trehalase gene (rs2276064 TREH), it was found that the A*TREH allele is the determinant of the disaccharide absorption disorders, and the allele’s carriership may be high in some groups. There is not enough information on the A*TREH frequency in the population of Russia.

The aim of the study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of the trehalase gene (rs2276064 TREH) in the main population groups of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries.

Methods. DNA samples from 1146 unrelated subjects belonging to 21 population groups of Russia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Mongolia were genotyped by the two following methods: 1) using the Infinium iSelect HD Custom Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina, USA) on the iScan platform; 2) by the real time polymer-chain reaction (PCR) method on the Bio-Rad CFX96 Touch amplifier.

Results. It has been found that on the territory of the Russian Federation the frequency of the A*TREH allele increases from the west to the east. The frequencies are lowest in the groups of Russians and Finns of the Northwest (0.01-0.03), up to 0.07 in the populations of Central Russia and the Volga region, and even higher toward the Southern Urals (Bashkirs 0.15), in the Transurals and Southern Siberia (0.19 in the Altai people, 0.30 in the Tuvinians and Mongols). Up to 1% of the population of the European part of the Russian Federation have the AA*TREH genotype (i.e. trehalose intolerance in phenotype), and up to 15% (GA*TREH genotype) have a reduced ability to absorb the disaccharide. In the Asian part of the country (Siberia, Altai, Baikal) the genotypes carriers constitute up to 12 and 46% respectively.

Conclusion. Trehalose malabsorbtion is an underappreciated problem of particular practical importance for regions with high concentrations of indigenous population (Yakutia-Sakha, Buryatia, Tyva, etc.). It would be feasible to consider food labelling of trehalose.

Diet treatment

The role of nutritional factors in the formation of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Annotation

Cardiovascular diseases are the most common complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and remain the main cause of mortality in this category of patients. Currently, there is more and more data that confirm the influence of nutritional factors not only on the achievement of target values of metabolic parameters in diabetes, but also on predictors of cardiovascular risk, and also demonstrate their role as independent predictors. In this regard, the study of the role of nutritional factors in the formation of high cardiovascular risk in patients with T2DM is of high practical importance and relevance.

The aim was to assess the role of nutritional factors in the formation of high total cardiovascular risk in patients with T2DM.

Material and methods. An open clinical controlled prospective observation was carried out for one year in 110 patients with T2DM (87 women and 23 men, mean age 56.7±8.6 years). The average value of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the group was 8.95±2.09%, the average value of the body mass index was 32.3 ±6.2 kg/m2. All patients were assessed for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, nutritional status was assessed by analyzing the frequency of consumption and a general semi-quantitative assessment of the intake of nutrients, food groups, and energy. During a one-year prospective follow-up, total cardiovascular endpoints were recorded and the effect of patient education on metabolic parameters, nutritional factors, and cardiovascular risk was assessed.

Results. In patients with T2DM who had various clinical forms of cardiovascular diseases, the diet had an increased level of fats, which exceeded the intake in individuals without complications (p=0.013), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) (p=0.003). The risk of developing cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM increased by 5 times under excessive consumption of products containing SFA (meat, animal fats, sausages) (OR 5.34; CI 3.05-10.22, p=0.001). The decrease in body weight in the target range (by 7-10% during the year) was characterized by a decrease in the HbA1c by 11.9%, postprandial glycemia by 25.7%, total cholesterol by 20.4%, atherogenic coefficient by 25.0%, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by 8.5%, highly sensitive C-reactive protein by 27.4%, systolic blood pressure by 6.9%, and also was accompanied by significant decrease in unfavorable total cardiovascular events during the year (p=0.024). In addition, in the group of patients who underwent training, there was a decrease in the total amount of calories consumed (p=0.018), consumption of SFA (p=0.021) and mono- and disaccharides (p=0.001), an increase in dietary fiber in the diet (p=0.015).

Conclusion. In the course of the study, an imbalance in the nutritional components of the diet in patients with T2DM was revealed. The significant role of alimentary factors in the formation of high cardiovascular risk has been demonstrated, as well as the effectiveness of therapeutic education of patients in terms of managing behavioral risk factors.

Development of fermented milk product based on mare milk and lactic microorganisms association

Annotation

Since ancient times, mare’s milk has been widely used by many peoples. Thanks to its unique composition, it is now used in the nutrition of people with allergies to cow’s milk, in the technologies of foods for special dietary uses, etc. To expand the range of products with useful properties, it is advisable to develop fermented milk products based on mare’s milk. Numerous studies indicate that the use of fermented milk products provides various health benefits. And the use of probiotic cultures in the composition of starter cultures for fermented milk products allows you to add a number of functional properties to the product. However, the only fermented milk product available on the market from mare’s milk is koumiss. Therefore, the development of new fermented milk products based on mare’s milk is relevant and in demand.

The aim of the study was to develop a fermented milk product based on mare’s milk using an association consisting of yogurt starter culture and a probiotic strain of L. rhamnosus F.

Material and methods. For the development of a fermented milk product based on mare’s milk, the yogurt starter STBp (S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus) and the probiotic culture L. rhamnosus F (GenBank MN994629) from the collection of lactic acid and probiotic microorganisms of VNIMI were chosen. As a basis for the fermented milk product, mare’s milk was used with the addition of dry mare’s or dry cow’s milk, pre-pasteurized at a temperature of 65±1 °C with a holding time of 30 min and cooled to a fermentation temperature of 37±1 °C. In the course of the work, the activity of acid formation during product fermentation, the duration of fermentation and the dynamics of the number of lactic acid bacteria and L. rhamnosus F probiotic strain during fermentation were studied, depending on the ratio of cultures in the ferment, the dose of the ferment introduced and the base for fermentation. The antimicrobial activity of the product was determined by agar well diffusion assay.

Results. It was found that L. rhamnosus F has a low acid-forming activity, so the use of a combined starter culture (association) was proposed. It was determined that the addition of cow’s milk powder to mare’s milk positively affects the activity of acid formation; after 6 hours of fermentation, the pH value varied in the range of 4.6-4.83, and after 8 hours pH was 4.44-4.65. When dry mare’s milk was added, the pH value after 8 hours of fermentation was in the range of 4.71-4.98 pH units. The influence of the amount of combined starter culture (association) and its cultures ratio, the duration of fermentation on the content of lactic acid bacteria, including the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus F in the fermented milk product based on mare’s milk, was established. The largest amount of L. rhamnosus F was contained in the product fermented by 7% association with the ratio of cultures 1/4 and 1/6 and after 8 h it amounted to 7-9.5x108 CFU/cm3.

Conclusion. Summarizing the results of the research, the technology of a fermented milk product based on mare’s milk was developed: the amount of starter culture (associations) - 7%, the ratio of cultures - 1 part of the starter culture for yogurt and 6 parts of L. rhamnosus F (1/6), the fermentation temperature - 37±1 °C, the duration of fermentation - 6 hours with the addition of cow’s milk powder and 8 hours with the addition of mare’s milk powder. The developed fermented milk product has antimicrobial activity against opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms E. coli ATCC 25922, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. typhimurium ATCC 14028.

Information

XVIII All-Russian Congress of Nutritionists and Nutritionists with international participation "Fundamental and applied aspects of nutritionology and dietetics"

Annotation
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
Scopus CiteScore
CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
РОСМЕДОБР 2021
Вскрытие
Medicine today

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