Effect of micro- and nanoplastics on the gastrointestinal mucosa and intestinal microbiome
Worldwide production and use of the polymers has led to intensive environmental pollution with micro- and nanoplastics (MP and NP). Accumulating in ecosystems, MP are transmitted through food chains and enter the human body. The associated health risks are of grave concern and require assessment. The main entry gate for MP/NP supplied with food is the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the well-established concept of MP/NP toxicity, information about their actual effects on the GIT is contradictory.
The aim of the research was to establish the nature and mechanisms of NPs and MPs action on the gastrointestinal mucosa and intestinal microbiome, basing on the literature data.
Material and methods. The review was compiled after selecting of 90 documents from major databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer and Google Scholar (up to March 2023).
Results. In animal studies and in vitro models, it was shown that MP/NP affect mucus secretion, its rheological characteristics, and can cause an increase in the permeability of tight junctions of epithelial cells by reducing the expression of zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin-1, which promotes the penetration of MP through the intestinal wall. Various adsorption layers (coronas) formed on the surface of MPs both abiotically and during transit through the GIT can lead to both increased and reduced toxicity of MPs. Biofilms formed on MP/NP surface create favorable conditions for the activity of pathogenic bacteria and horizontal gene exchange between the components of the biofilm and the intestinal microbiome. Animal experiments have shown an unfavorable effect of MP/NP on the intestinal microbiota and its key metabolites, contributing to the development of dysbiosis.
Conclusion. Most data on the effect of MP on the GIT have been obtained using a model object – polystyrene microspheres, which are rarely found in practice. A frequent limitation of the in vitro studies is the discrepancy between used doses (concentrations) of MP and those that may occur when MP are consumed with food. Data on the potential impact of MP/NP on the GIT protective barrier and intestinal microbiota obtained under various experimental conditions are contradictory. Thus, evidence of the impact of MP/NP on the GIT and intestinal microbiota of humans needs further confirmation, which will allow us to move on to the development of a set of measures that can reduce the risks of MP exposure to human health.
The influence of environmental factors on the prevalence of «thrifty genotypes» as predictors of metabolic disorders
“Thrifty genotypes” are the risk factors for obesity and lipid and energy metabolism disorders. Hence, it is important to assess the contribution of environmental factors that influenced the thrifty genotypes’ population distribution.
Aim of the study – systematization and critical analysis of published data on population variability, relationship with climatic and environmental characteristics, association with traditional types of lifestyles, and nutrition for the «thrifty genotypes» of APOE, UCP1, UCP3, and FTO genes.
Material and methods. The selection of publications from the last 20–25 years presented in the PubMed database (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) was carried out by the keywords of the generalizing rank (thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, drifty genotype), then narrowed down to the APOE, UCP, FTO. The final set includes publications that consider the association of genotypes with the ecological conditions of the population.
Results. Our analysis of publications has confirmed the ethnic and geographical variability in the allele distribution of APOE, UCP1, UCP3, and FTO genes. However, the nature of this variability hasn’t been studied sufficiently; the contribution of individual factors of the natural and anthropogenic environment remains unclear. The information on the geographical distribution of the APOE gene alleles is quite complete, while the data on the «thrifty genotypes» of UCP and FTO require further study.
Conclusion. The frequency of the UCP1 and UCP3 alleles associated with effective non-contractile thermogenesis is increased in populations adapted to low temperatures. However, the population-geographical pattern of the UCP thrifty genotypes’ variability as a determinant of increased fat deposition has been studied insufficiently. The carriage of FTO mutant variants increases the adaptability of groups with a traditional lifestyle and diet but is maladaptive in an urbanized environment. The influence of natural and ecological conditions on the formation of the FTO allele geographical distribution requires more attention. The results obtained allow us to propose the included groups’ ranking according to the past environmental management and nutrition will facilitate the search for ecological factors that influenced the geographical distribution of genotypes (and, accordingly, populations with different levels of risk of metabolic disorders).
Innovative methods for extracting biolactive сompounds from plant materials
Modern methods for extracting bioactive сompounds (BAC) from various raw materials are focused on efficacy and environmental awareness, involve the use of mathematical and statistical optimization methods, the choice of green solvents, and the use of additive extraction technology.
The aim of this review was to present and briefly discuss up-to-date information on modern technological approaches to the production of plant BAС extracts for applying in food ingredients and foods for special dietary uses.
Material and methods. For the main search of sources, the PubMed bibliographic database, Scopus and Web of Science databases, and the Google Scholar search engine were used. The search depth was 15 years.
Results. The article presents a brief review of modern approaches to the extraction, concentration and purification of polyphenolic compounds from various plant materials. As an additive extraction technology aimed at destroying/increasing the permeability of the plant cell wall, a wide range of physical methods has been successfully used: ultrasound, microwave radiation, homogenization, application of a pulsed electric field, high hydrostatic pressure, cryo-crushing. A brief description of each method, its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Improving food safety and compliance with environmental regulations requires the choice of a safe, environmentally friendly and yet efficient extraction process. For these purposes enzymatic extraction, environmentally friendly solvents, such as deep eutectic solvents, supercritical fluid extraction and membrane technology are successfully used. The use of mathematical and statistical methods can reduce the total number of experimental trials and reduce the cost and time of experiments. The use of these methods together makes it possible to vary deliberately the process parameters in relation to a specific plant material and the final product, which provides the opportunity to isolate BAS concentrates from plant raw materials with a high yield.
Conclusion. The introduction of innovative technological approaches for obtaining extracts of BAC of plant origin determines the prospects for the production of a wide range of foods for special dietary uses that meet high safety and efficiency requirements.
Аnalysis of global trends in the use of whole-grain products in the nutrition of the population
In recent years, there was a worldwide increase of interest in foods with whole grain components. The number of studies that confirm their wide functional potential and importance in the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases is expanding. At the same time, there is no agreement reached on the definition of the concept of whole grain products and the optimal level of its consumption in the world; and the provisions enshrined in national regulations are quite contradictory. In Russian practice, there are no recommendations on the use of whole grain products in nutrition.
The aim of this research was to analyze world trends of using whole-grain products in the nutrition of the population.
Material and methods. The review is based on the analysis of publications presented in the PubMed, Scopus, Food Science, Technology Abstracts databases mainly over the past 10 years.
Results. The article discusses the use of whole-grain products in the nutrition of the population and their role in prevention of non-communicable diseases. The results of scientific researches demonstrating the positive experience of using whole grains in preventing obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular pathology are presented. The current dietary recommendations on the level of consumption of whole-grain products in the world, as well as the commitment of the population to them, are summarized. The problems of whole-grain products identification and product labelling are considered.
Conclusion. Despite growing interest in whole-grain products around the world, consumption levels remain insufficient to realize their potential. Solution to this problem can be the achievement of consensus on whole-grain products with the participation of scientific communities and representatives of the food industry, as well as raising awareness among the population about the benefits of whole grains.
Identification of potential hazards and analysis of critical control points in cultured meat (in vitro meat) production
The development of food technologies at the present stage is aimed at expanding the range of food raw materials, including alternative food sources. One of such sources is meat derived from in vitro stem cells or cultured meat. The stages of in vitro meat production could be divided into four blocks: preparation of raw materials, cultivation of cells in a nutrient medium, forming the final product and preparing meat for sale to the consumer. The cultured meat production process must be accompanied by the improvement, implementation and maintenance of procedures based on HACCP principles. However, the developed and approved HACCP system for the cultured meat production hasn’t been found in the scientific literature. Given the prospects for cultured meat production, the development HACCP system for this area is feasible. In this regard, it is advisable to identify critical control points in production and identify the potential hazards of cultured meat to consumers for subsequent risk assessment.
The aim of the study was to identify potential health hazards and analyze key control points in cultured meat production.
Material and methods. Previously conducted studies on in vitro meat cultivation technologies, as well as Russian regulatory and technical documentation were used as initial data on the production processes of cultured meat and the risk associated with its production. The method of studying and critical analyzing relevant scientific sources devoted to the safety of cultured meat was applied. In total, more than 120 sources were studied, from which 30 relevant ones were selected.
Results. The potential hazards associated with the consumption of cultured meat are due to physical, chemical and biological factors. In addition, the occurrence of allergic reactions is identified as a danger factor. An imbalance of amino acids in the diet may occur as a result of the consumption of novel food in a significant proportion (>50% of meat consumption). Ten critical control points have been identified, each of which is characterized by the action of potential hazard factors of a different nature. It has been established that the number of critical control points is the same at all stages of production, except for the formation of the final product. The characteristics of hazard factors, as well as information about the critical control points of these factors’ action, determine the possibility of assessing the potential hazard (and further risk assessment) and choosing measures to manage them, which meets the requirements of GOST R ISO 22000-2019.
Conclusion. Each of the identified types of hazard is not specific to a particular stage of in vitro meat production and can effect negatively at several critical control points. When organizing control (monitoring) of the safety of new type food, one should be guided by the Technical Regulations of the Custom Union “On the Safety of Food Products”, according to which the manufacturer of foods (including novel foods) must develop, implement and comply with procedures based on the HACCP. The use of HACCP is relevant under inappropriate risk for consumer health. To assess the risk level, exposure assessment (a key step in risk assessment) should be carried out for each type of hazard factor. For these purposes, it is necessary to identify the potential risk group and determine the scenarios of cultured meat’s consumption.
Medical and social assessment of the quality of life of a family with a child suffering from food allergy
Food allergy (FA) is a health problem that adversely affect the quality of life of children and their family members.
The purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life in families with children affected FA.
Material and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 75 children with a confirmed FA (at the age of Me 4.9 years [1.3; 7.1]). One of the caregivers of the child was asked to complete the Russian version of a specialized questionnaire «The Food hypersensitivity famiLy ImPact, FLIP» for assessing the life quality of families with children affected FA.
Results. Diet organization is the main concern affecting quality of life, while the daily life of the family and the emotional sphere are less impacted. Age, type of food allergens and clinical manifestations do not significantly contribute the life quality indicators. Hypersensitivity to several food is statistically associated with changes in everyday life and emotions. Non-compliance with the diet is associated with a lower impact of FA on quality of life. 56% of respondents worried about the nutritional value of child’s diet and 49.3% of caregivers reported that a child’s FA significantly impacted grocery shopping behaviors (reading labels, etc.). At the same time, 73.3% noted that child’s FA does not affect the diet of other family members. Also, 33.3% of the parents experienced anxiety due to child’s FA and 38.7% are worried that FA might stay persistent. 30.7% of respondents are afraid of accidental consuming of allergenic products.
Conclusion. The acquired results indicate the importance of quality of life assessment for understanding the social aspects of FA. Strategies to improve the quality of life include the development of informational and educational programs both for parents and patients. In order to estimate impact of FA to life quality from the patient’s perspective further development of questionnaires adapted for children and adolescents is necessary.
Functional state of the mesenteric arteries with higt fat intake in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes
An increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with excessive consumption of fats and carbohydrates, while DM leads to the development of cardiovascular diseases.
The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on the functional state of the mesenteric arteries in vivo in Wistar rats with DM.
Material and methods. The study was conducted on 45 male Wistar rats with an initial body weight of 220–240 g, which were divided into 3 equal groups. Animals of the control group received a standard diet for 3 months. Rats of the second group (STZ) were fed a standard diet, after 8 weeks the animals were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg body weight). Animals in the STZ+HFD group received HFD (50% beef tallow), and an injection of STZ (35 mg/kg). We assessed the effect of HFD on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-free reactions of phenylephrine (PE) precontracted mesenteric arteries under the action of agonists in the absence and use of blockers of NO-synthase (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase (indomethacin), and K+-channels (tetraethylammonium), using microphoto- and videorecording of vessel diameter in vivo.
Results. DM in rats led to an increase in the constrictor reaction to FE; in animals of the STZ+HFD group, the diameter of the vessel decreased by 63.7±4.7%; in the STZ group, by 60.4±3.8%; and in the control group, by 48.9±4.1%. HFD and DM induction had no effect on the amount of relaxation under the action of sodium nitroprusside. The amplitude of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the mesenteric arteries of rats with DM in the absence of blockers was significantly lower (by 27.1% on average in the STZ+HFD group, by 14.6% in the STZ group) compared with control animals. After NO synthase inhibition, the relaxation amplitude decreased in the STZ+HFD group by 48.6±3.2%, in the STZ group by 56.1±2.8%, and in control animals by 58.3±3.1% compared with the dilatation amplitude without the use of a blocker. Acetylcholine-induced vascular dilatation under conditions of simultaneous use of a complex of three blockers – L-NAME, indomethacin and tetraethylammonium was reduced in rats with DM treated with HFD by an average of 18.9% and in animals of the STZ group by 22.1% compared with control animals.
Conclusion. Thus, excessive fat intake in rats with STZ-induced DM enhances the impairment of the functional state of the mesenteric arteries compared to animals with DM that received a standard diet. In HFD in rats with DM, a decrease in endothelium-dependent vasodilation was mediated as a failure of NO-dependent relaxation mechanisms and a decrease in the efficiency of the mechanism of endothelial hyperpolarization, whereas in rats with DM fed a standard diet, it was predominantly a disturbance in the mechanism of endothelial hyperpolarization.
Postgenomic and structural changes in the myocardia of Wistar rats fed a high-salt diet
The relationship between dietary sodium, hypertension, and cardiovascular injury is far from clear. One of the important links in this process can be microRNAs that have the ability to modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, their role in this process has not been fully studied. In addition, further studies require the identification of structural changes in the myocardium in conditions of long-term consumption of a high-salt diet.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression levels of nuclear transcription factor κB (NFκB), microRNA (miRNA)-21 and structural changes in the myocardium during long-term consumption of a diet containing 8% (high) sodium chloride in Wistar rats.
Material and methods. 20 Wistar rats with initial body weight 280.5±42.7 g were divided into two equal groups. The high salt (HS) group received 8% NaCl in the diet, the control (NS) group received the standard diet (0.34% NaCl). After 4 months, systolic blood pressure was measured in rats using the cuff method on the tail; the myocardial mass index was assessed after dissection; histological and electron microscopic examination of the myocardium was performed, and the expression levels of miRNA-21 and NFκB in the myocardium were determined.
Results and discussion. Consumption of a diet high in sodium chloride for 4 months did not significantly affect the level of systolic blood pressure in normotensive Wistar rats, but led to an increase in myocardial mass index by 25.0% (p<0.05). In the HS group, hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and an increase in the wall thickness of arterial vessels were revealed. The area of perivascular fibrosis in rats of the HS-group was almost 1.8 fold higher than in the NS-group. In animals of HS-group, the relative levels of expression of NFκB (more than 2 times) and miRNA-21 (almost 6 times) increased compared with the control. It can be assumed that the negative impact on the cardiovascular system of high-salt diets is partially realized through NFκB-associated signaling pathways and miRNA-21 activation.
Conclusion. In Wistar rats, long-term use of a high-salt diet results in myocardial remodeling that is not associated with changes in blood pressure. At the same time, the adverse effects of high salt intake on the myocardium are mediated, in particular, by postgenomic mechanisms, namely an increase in the expression levels of NFκB and microRNA-21.
Effect of L-carnitine and resveratrol complex on the profile of cytokines and regulatory proteins in normal and obese rats
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, peripheral organs and some compartments of the brain are among pathogenetic factors in obesity. The use of bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activity in the composition of specialized products and dietary supplements is considered as an approach in the diet therapy of obesity and related conditions.
The aim of the research was to study the effect of a complex supplement containing resveratrol and L-carnitine (RC supplement) on the immunological parameters of inflammation (the profile of cytokines and regulatory proteins) in rats fed a balanced or hypercaloric diet.
Material and methods. Male Wistar rats received for 63 days a standard balanced diet (SD) or a high-carbohydrate-high-fat diet (HFCD) with an excess of total fat and fructose, as well as RC supplement at a low (25 mg/kg body weight as Res and 300 mg/kg body weight as L-Car) or high (50 and 600 mg/kg body weight, respectively) dose. The content of leptin, ghrelin, cytokines and chemokines in blood serum (BS), lysates of white adipose tissue (WAT) and spleen, amygdala and hippocampus of the brain, the content of regulatory proteins Akt, IRS-1, GCK-3a/b, p70/S6, BAD, m-TOR, PTEN and S6 ribosomal protein in the amygdala and hippocampus have been studied the by multiplex immunoassay.
Results. In rats that consumed RC as part of SD, there was a decrease in the levels of leptin and its ratio with ghrelin, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-12p40 and IL-12p70, IFN-γ) in BS and WAT, chemokines (MCP-1, M-CSF, MIP-2) in WAT. Some of these effects were more pronounced at a low dose of RC than at a large dose, and some of them were also canceled or changed in direction in animals treated with HFCD. In the amygdala, RC consumption increased the content of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines; the most significant was the increase in IL-7 levels in animals fed SD, and RANTES in animals fed HFCD. In the hippocampus of rats, the RC intake had an insignificant effect on the levels of cytokines and chemokines. Akt-1 kinase and the substrate of the insulin receptor IRS-1 were the main targets of RC action in the regions of the brain.
Conclusion. The complex dietary supplement RC exerted a hypoleptinemic effect, revealed certain anti-inflammatory effects and modulated a number of the brain factors influencing behavioral responses in obesity. However, the synergistic effect of resveratrol and L-carnitine in the composition of the supplement wasn’t not observed, and the effectiveness of its action decreased in conditions of a hypercaloric diet consumption.
Evaluation of specific IgG content to nutritional antigens in patients with metabolic syndrome
Specific antibodies to food antigens are detected both in healthy individuals and in various pathologies, including those of the gastrointestinal tract, neuro- and autoimmune diseases. In fact, there are no studies concerning the level of specific IgG to food antigens in metabolic syndrome. A comparative analysis of the concentration of specific IgG to food antigens in patients with metabolic syndrome and healthy people was carried out.
The goal was to determine the concentrations of specific IgG to food antigens in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Material and methods. A survey of 100 patients with metabolic syndrome and 100 practically healthy people was carried out. The content of low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose, specific IgG antibodies to food allergens, insulin, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α was determined in the blood serum.
Results. A comparative analysis of the level of specific IgG to food antigens in patients with metabolic syndrome and practically healthy people was carried out. The spectrum of the most frequently detected IgG to food antigens in metabolic syndrome was similar to that in practically healthy people, but their average level was higher and elevated levels were more often recorded. It has been shown that the range of specific IgG detected was interconnected with impaired glucose utilization. Higher concentrations of IgG to meat and fish products were recorded in patients with insulin resistance, in the absence of insulin resistance higher levels of IgG to dairy products were revealed.
Conclusion. In the metabolic syndrome, an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier and a state of chronic mild inflammation are associated with a more active intake of food antigens, leading to an activation of the immune system, with an increase in the production of specific IgG. This can significantly increase the risk of developing pathological neuro- and autoimmune diseases in patients with metabolic disorders. Insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome is associated with higher concentrations of IgG to meat and fish products, ie. food antigenic specificity may play a regulatory influence in the formation of impaired glucose utilization.
Correction of gut dysbiosis as a promising direction in the prevention of neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment
In recent years new data have been obtained on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as on the influence of dietary patterns (Mediterranean diet, MIND diet) and probiotics on the correction of dysbiosis and slowing down the development of cognitive disorders. It seems reasonable to draw the attention of practicing physicians to the need to prevent cognitive dysfunction through dietary correction, probiotics and prebiotics intake.
The purpose of the research was to study the possibility of using certain dietary patterns, as well as intake of probiotics and prebiotics for the correction of dysbiosis and early prevention of cognitive dysfunction, basing on the analysis of published data on the bidirectional communication between the colon microbiota and the brain and microbiota changes in patients with cognitive dysfunction and AD.
Material and methods. We searched domestic and foreign literature devoted to gut microbiota, the “gut-brain” axis, microbiota disorders in AD patients; mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration; the role of dietary patterns, in particular MIND diet, pre- and probiotics in the prevention of cognitive dysfunction – via PubMed search engine, SemanticScholar Google Internet search platform and domestic scientific electronic library Cyberleninka. 72 literature sources were analyzed.
Results. Intestinal dysbiosis and disruption of intestinal barrier integrity play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Changes in the microbiota in patients with cognitive impairment and AD are associated with disease severity and are generally characterized by increased numbers of Gram-negative microorganisms in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla and decreased numbers of Gram-positive microorganisms in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla. An increase in gram-negative microorganisms abundance leads to elevated release of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that disrupt the integrity of the intestinal mucous barrier and, through a series of steps, initiate neuroinflammation. Course application of probiotics containing representatives of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera, in particular, Bifidobacterium breve A1 и Lactobacillus plantarum С29 strains, leads to improved cognitive function, which can be explained by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Long-term prospective studies of the effects of dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet and the MIND diet clearly show delayed regression of cognitive function in older adults without initial dementia as well as in patients with AD. For example, according to various studies, individuals who have strictly adhered to the Mediterranean diet for 6–9 years have a 23–39% lower risk of developing cognitive impairment. Adherence to the MIND diet for 6 years has a statistically significant association with higher verbal memory scores. Correction of gut dysbiosis, including through the administration of probiotics, prebiotics and bringing the diet to the MIND diet pattern, is the most affordable and rational method for early prevention of cognitive dysfunction.
Conclusion. A promising strategy in the early prevention of neuroinflammation, cognitive impairment and dementia is to maintain the balance of the gut microbiota. The solution to this problem is achieved by adjusting the dietary pattern, increasing the use of dietary fiber and prebiotics and reasonable use of probiotics.
Comparative evaluation of the antagonistic activity of collection lactobacilli against the multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae
Taking into account the known data on the high prevalence of multi-drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, such as Klebsiella spp., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and their properties to maintain viability in fermented milk products when using technologies in which, along with starter microorganisms, some enterobacteria with increased resistance to environmental factors (primarily active acidity) can survive and even multiply, the search for new strains of lactic acid probiotic bacteria with a pronounced antimicrobial effect are currently one of the most relevant areas of research in food biotechnology. Representatives of the Lactobacillus genus are currently considered as the most promising objects for the search for producers with probiotic properties. Their antagonistic activity is an important condition for ensuring the biological safety of foods created using fermentation and for developing effective measures to combat conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms of the highest priority in terms of epidemiological significance.
The aim of the research was to study the antagonistic activity of collectible probiotic Lactobacillus strains in relation to multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, to assess their suitability in the production of specialized fermented milk products.
Material and methods. To determine the antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus collection strains in relation to the Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, two methods were used: co-cultivation and diffusion into agar using wells.
Results. As a result of the study of 2 strains of lactic acid bacteria – Lactobacillus helveticus NK1 and Lactobacillus (Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus) rhamnosus F as antagonists against Klebsiella pneimopiae hospital strain, characterized by multiresistance to antibiotics of different groups, the high efficacy of the L. rhamnosus F. strain was confirmed. Antagonistic activity of the L. helveticus NK1 strain was insignificant, which suggests the variability of Klebsiella and the importance of searching for an antagonist strain with the widest possible spectrum of action.
Conclusion. The confirmed high antagonistic activity of the L. rhamnosus F strain makes it possible to recommend it for inclusion in starter cultures. The prospects of using the L. rhamnosus F strain, including for the production of fermented milk products for therapeutic nutrition and other special dietary uses, and for use in the diets of people with dysbiotic disorders, patients with intestinal infections, in particular, caused by multi-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniaе, related to nosocomial infections, are shown. However, further research is needed to determine (identify) the mechanisms of the antimicrobial action of L. rhamnosus F. strain.
Natural pigments in fruit and vegetable juices: the content of anthocyanins, carotenoids and betalaines
The color of the juice is determined by the color of the corresponding fruit or vegetable from which the juice is made. The color of a fruit or vegetable, in turn, is determined by the presence of natural coloring pigments – secondary plant metabolites, which include mainly anthocyanins, carotenoids and betalains. These substances, in addition to bright colors, give the juices properties that largely provide a positive effect on health. The quantitative content of these pigments in juices (especially in commercially produced juices, the most commonly consumed by the population at present) is important for understanding of the contribution of that juices in real intake of these bioactive compounds with diet.
The purpose of the work was to study the content of anthocyanins, carotenoids and betalaines in juices and nectars (cherry, pomegranate, red grapes, tomato, carrot, peach and vegetable juices containing red beetroot) widely represented on the Russian market.
Material and methods. The content of natural coloring pigments was determined by HPLC: anthocyanins – according to GOST 32709-2014 “Juice products. Methods for the determination of anthocyanins», carotenoids - in accordance with R 4.1.1672-03 “Guidelines for methods of quality control and safety of biologically active food supplements”, betalains by revised IFU method of analysis No 71 (rev. 2023) “Anthocyanins and Betalains by HPLC”. The results of measurements in 66 samples selected from Russian retail chains were analyzed.
Results. The highest content of anthocyanins (in terms of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) was found in cherry nectars – an average of 11.4 mg/100 cm3, lower values were obtained for red grape juices (an average of 2.5 mg/100 cm3) and pomegranate juices (0.9 mg/100 cm3). In tomato juices, in addition to lycopene (7.0–14.1 mg/100 cm3), β-carotene was found in an amount of 0.3–1.2 mg/100 cm3. In carrot juices, the content of β-carotene was at the level of 5.7–12.5 mg/100 cm3, in peach nectars – 0.14–0.38 mg/100 cm3. The highest concentrations of betalains were found in directly pressed red beet juice at a level of 156.2 mg/100 cm3, with a predominance of betacyanins (99.4 mg/100 cm3) over betaxanthins (56.8 mg/100 cm3). The content of betacyanins decreased to 51.5 mg/100 cm3 in directly pressed lacto-fermented juice and to 2–3 mg/100 cm3 in multi-vegetable juices; betaxanthins were not detected in these samples.
Conclusion. The study showed high levels of natural coloring substances – anthocyanins, carotenoids and in some extent betalains in juice products. A serving (200 cm3) of cherry nectar can provide up to 100% of an adequate daily intake of anthocyanins, a serving of red grape juice and a serving of pomegranate juice can provide up to 20% and up to 10%, respectively. The content of β-carotene in a serving of carrot juice is several times higher than the daily requirement for adults; a serving of peach nectar contains up to 10% of the daily requirement for β-carotene. Tomato juice is rich in lycopene, this carotenoid content in a serving is several times higher than the adequate daily intake, while the content of β-carotene is also at a high level – up to 50% of the daily requirement for this substance. Despite the fact that direct data on the adequate daily intake of betalains have not yet been established, relatively high concentrations of betalains, especially in directly pressed red beet juices, determine their significant potential in increasing the nutritive value of the diet through beet-based juices intake.
Study of the sorption-desorption of ecdysterone (20 E) as part of adaptogenic compositions with inulin and functional food ingredients based on spinach and quinoa
The main principle in the enrichment of food with minor bioactive compounds is the prediction and evaluation of possible chemical interactions of the components included in the matrix of the food. These interactions have a impact on the bioavailability of minor bioactive compounds. In our work, we studied the processes of sorption and desorption (release), the main processes affecting the bioavailability of the minor bioactive compound ecdysterone (20 E) in the composition of functional food ingredients obtained from spinach leaves (FFI-1) and quinoa grains (FFI-2) on hydrocolloid matrix – inulin.
The objective of the research was to study the completeness of sorption-desorption processes of 20 E in adaptogenic compositions with inulin and functional food ingredients based on spinach and quinoa under the influence of hydrolytic enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in vitro.
Material and methods. To obtain experimental compositions, containing FFI-1 and FFI-2 and the polysaccharide (inulin), a mechanical mixing method was used. To study the sorption properties, model solutions of the compositions were prepared. Using an in vitro enzymatic model, the ability of 20 E to be released from the matrix of the compositions was studied. The content of 20 E was determined by HPLC-MS/MS.
Results. 6 compositions with different ratios of polysaccharide/FFI were obtained. At the first stage of the study, the maximum sorption of 20E in the model solution was observed for 4 compositions with the ratio of inulin : FFI = 2.50 or 3.75 g : 189.19 mg FFI-1 or 68.40 mg FFI-2. At the second stage of the study, when assessing the desorption of 20 E on the enzymatic GIT model, it was found that 20 E almost completely released only from 2 compositions, in other cases about 25% of 20 E remained in a bound state.
Conclusion. The formulation of two compositions with the ratio of inulin (2.50 g) : FFI-1 (189.19 mg)/FFI-2 (68.40 mg) were obtained, which have the most optimal sorption / release parameters of 20 E under the influence of human gastrointestinal enzymes. These compositions can be considered promising for inclusion in the formulation of fortified foods.