Вопросы питания № 3 2024

Problems of Nutrition

scientific and practical journal

Included in the List of the leading peer-reviewed journals and publications recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC) of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for publication of the results of theses for the degree of candidate or doctor of science.


Content
3 . 2024
Reviews

Anthocyanins as an element of nutritional support for athletes: effects and molecular mechanisms of action

Abstract

Antioxidants are among the common components of sports nutrition designed to counteract oxidative stress that develops during intense physical activity. One of the promising antioxidants are anthocyanins which belong to polyphenolic compounds of plant origin (class of flavonoids).

The purpose of the research was to analyze the results of prospective controlled studies on the effect of anthocyanins on physical performance, and to consider the possible molecular mechanisms of their action.

Material and methods. Sources were searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, and CyberLeninka databases of peer‑reviewed scientific literature without restrictions on the year of publication using the following keywords: anthocyanins, physical performance, recovery, sport and exercise nutrition, oxidative stress, inflammation.

Results. The main data set on the effects of anthocyanins in athletes was obtained using extracts of blackcurrant and Montmorency tart cherry. Volunteers received anthocyanins at a dose of 86–547 mg per day for 1 to 10 days with subsequent evaluation of their performance in cycling, running and fitness activities. The possibility of favorable effect of anthocyanins on physical performance and acceleration of its recovery after exertion has been shown. The source, dose and duration of intake did not significantly influence the established effects of anthocyanins. Acting as exogenous regulators of metabolism, anthocyanins can activate several mechanisms of performance enhancement, including influence on antioxidant and immune status and apoptosis intensity. Anthocyanins prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species, neutralize electrophilic compounds by direct interaction or through activation of Nrf2 factor, which regulates the transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes. The basis of the anti‑inflammatory action of anthocyanins is their ability to inhibit MARK and NF-κB mediated signal transduction. Inclusion of bilberry and blackcurrant extract in the diet prevented the intensification of myocyte apoptosis and suppression of cellular immunity induced by exhausting exercise. An additional mechanism of anthocyanin action on physical performance may be an increase in blood supply of organs and tissues due to vascular dilation caused by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

Conclusion. The intake of plant extracts with a high anthocyanin content can increase physical performance and improve recovery after physical exertion, which may be due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins, their ability to regulate apoptosis processes and improve blood supply to organs and tissues.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Assessment of species diversity of anaerobic intestinal microbiota in children and adolescents with exogenous constitutional obesity

Abstract

The problem of the increasing obesity among children and adolescents is urgent. One of the most interesting and promising directions in this area is to study the correlation of individual microorganisms with the presence and absence of obesity.

The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the isolation frequency of individual microorganisms and the presence of obesity in children and adolescents and to identify possible associations between different groups of microorganisms in obese patients.

Material and methods. 156 male and female patients aged from 7 to 17 years were included in the study. The patients were divided into a control group (n=23) (healthy patients), a group of children with exogenous constitutional obesity without complications (n=25), a group of children who had one or more complications of obesity (n=108). For all patients body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Additional examination included a cultural study of the intestinal microbiota. Fecal samples of patients were used as the material. Preparation of the material for inoculation, inoculation and subsequent incubation of the Petri plates were carried out under anaerobic conditions. The isolated microorganisms were identified using the MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry method.

Results. When analyzing the correlation between obesity and individual taxa, statistically significant differences were obtained only for Bifidobacterium spp. (p=0.045). The analysis of the correlation between obesity and the isolation of individual microorganisms has shown that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (p=0.012), Candida albicans (p=0.012), Streptococcus salivarius (p=0.016), Bifidobacterium breve (p=0.003), Veillonella parvula (p=0.013), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (p=0.003), Streptococcus oralis (p=0.001), Weissella confusa (p=0.036), Enterococcus mundtii (p=0.036) were isolated less often in patients with obesity than in control group.

Conclusion. The results of the study has demonstrated that only one taxon, Bifidobacterium spp., had a significant correlation with the absence of obesity. At the same time, a reliable correlation with the absence of obesity was also established for individual microorganisms, including several microorganisms from Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp., which may enable to establish certain microbiological predictors of obesity and its complications.

Nutrition of sportsmеn

Bioimpedance analysis of body composition and rest energy expenditure in highly trained cross-country skiers

Abstract

The body composition monitoring using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is important in assessing the functional state of athletes in sports. Based on changes of body composition, it is possible to optimize the actual dietary intake, as well as successfully organize the training process.

The purpose of this research was to conduct a comparative assessment of BIA parameters and rest energy expenditure (REE) in highly trained cross-country skiers and young non-athletes.

Material and methods. The members of the national cross-country skiing team from the Komi Republic and Russian Federation (n=30; age – 22.3±2.7 years) were examined. Practically healthy medical students served as a control group for the present study (n=40; age – 20.2±2.4 years). The participants successively passed the following study steps: assessment of the body composition by BIA (ACCUNIQ BC380), REE determination by indirect non-fasting calorimetry and calculation technique.

Results. The parameters of total body water, fat-free mass, lean tissue and body cell mass were higher in contrast to the fat mass percentage in the athletes (р<0.001). The calculated REE was lower than measured REE among all the participants. At the same time, the REE calculated by the Ketch–McArdle formula significantly differed between the groups, while no differences were found between the REE calculated by the Harris–Benedict prediction equation. The measured REE were significantly higher by 16% (p<0.001) in athletes compared to those in the control group.

Conclusion. The body composition of athletes was distinguished by a significantly higher amounts of total body water, fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, active cell mass, and lower percentage of fat mass compared to healthy untrained individuals. The results obtained among athletes coincided with the idea that the magnitude of REE is determined by the mass of metabolically active tissues and to a lesser extent depends on the fat mass. BIA results can be used to monitor athletes’ body composition during the training process.

Hygiene of nutrition

Eating patterns and risk of eating disorders in adolescents

Abstract

Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of eating disorders, which affect an adolescent’s diet and can have adverse and long-term health consequences. The relationship between the risk of eating disorders and the diet of Russian adolescents has been little studied.

The objective of the research was to characterize the relationship between the risk of eating disorders and dietary patterns in a sample of Russian schoolchildren.

Material and methods. The continuous cross-sectional study included tenth-graders of secondary schools (n=379, 63.1% girls) aged 16.0±0.5 years. The Russian version of the Eating Disorder Inventory was used to assess the risk of eating disorders. Dietary information was obtained from questionnaires completed by adolescents, characterizing the frequency of meals (at home and at school) during the week, the variety of dishes, and the frequency of consumption of foods and dishes. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to calculate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)/height index.

Results. The eating patterns of schoolchildren were significantly disrupted, more so in girls. They were statistically significantly less likely than boys to consume meat, milk, nuts, and butter, and were more likely to skip breakfast. Significant correlations were shown between BMI Z-score and WC/height index in girls with body dissatisfaction (R=0.19 and 0.18, respectively, p<0.01), desire to lose weight (R=0.26 and 0.25, respectively, p<0.01) and bulimic tendencies (R=0.13, p<0.05 for WC/height). In boys, the drive for thinness was significantly associated only with abdominal fat deposition (R=0.26, p<0.01). Body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness in boys were associated with statistically significantly lower consumption of candies, chocolate, ice cream, cookies and potatoes; in girls – with rare consumption of candies, ice cream, sweet carbonated drinks, juices, fast food, as well as bread, meat and sausages, butter, skipping breakfast and dinner.

Conclusion. The tendency to develop eating disorder in adolescence is more common in girls and is associated with dietary restrictions affecting important components of the diet necessary for normal growth and development.

Microbiological and parasitological risk analysis of novel food sources obtained with the use of insects

Abstract

The problem of food safety being an important component of the country’s food security, provides not only for continuous improvement of the methodology of hygienic standardization, but also for the formation of requirements for novel food, in particular, those obtained from non-traditional sources. The accumulated practical and theoretical competence in the food hygiene area, as well as knowledge of current trends of the food base broadening, allow us to analyze the risks associated with novel food obtained of insects.

The purpose of the research was to analyze the microbiological and parasitological risk of novel food sources obtained with the use of insects, suggest the effective risk management measures.

Material and methods. The analytical part of the work included literature search, collection of information and statistical materials published in domestic and foreign scientific editions. The search was carried out using the Google Academy retrieval system and electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, eLIBRARY), mainly in the last 25 years, using the keywords: Hermetia illucens, Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, insects, parasite, nematode, pathogen, cysts.

Results. Based on the published materials’ analysis, a systematization of microbiological and parasitological factors potentially capable of colonizing edible insects has been carried out. There were identified representatives of 24 groups of pathogenic and 18 opportunistic microorganisms and helminths related to microbial and parasitic pathogens, the spread of which is significantly influenced by inappropriate conditions of feeding and keeping insects. As there are currently no veterinary requirements for insect breeding and farming conditions, contamination of end products with infectious and parasitic pathogens can vary over a very wide range.

Conclusion. The use of native insect biomass carries certain risks associated with its microbial and parasitic contamination, and the development of measures to prevent them requires significant resources. The possibility of deep processing of such raw materials can be considered as one of the solutions to mitigate these risks. For use in the food industry, insects should be subjected to processing similar to that currently used for soybean seeds, which includes separation of protein (entomoprotein), fat and chitin fractions, each of which would have an independent use. Thus, at present, insects should be considered as a source of novel food ingredients, first of all, complete protein of animal origin.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FOODSTUFFS

Nutritional status and nutritional support of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness at the stage of medical rehabilitation

Abstract

Chronic disturbances of consciousness (CDC) are a consequence of severe brain damage and are conditions that arise after emerging from a coma with the preservation of the sleep-wake cycle in the absence of signs of conscious behavior. When conducting inpatient medical rehabilitation of this group of patients, the state of nutritional status is not always taken into account and, as a rule, there is no nutritional support with an assessment of metabolic needs, including the introduction of various modes of physical activity during physical therapy and an increase in physical load on the patient’s body.

The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and optimize the nutritional support system in patients with CDC at the inpatient stage of medical rehabilitation (MR).

Material and methods. The study analyzed the results of examination and treatment of 152 patients with CDC of traumatic origin who received medical rehabilitation from 2016 to 2022 in the Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters.

Results. In patients with CDC of traumatic genesis, signs of malnutrition (objective, anthropometric, laboratory) were diagnosed at the inpatient stage of MR, and there were also risks of malnutrition progression with the introduction of additional physical activity.

Conclusion. To create an effective and adequate nutritional support system during inpatient MR, metabolic monitoring (indirect calorimetry) is of fundamental importance, taking into account the influence of additional physical activity. The use of a calculation method for estimating energy requirements can lead to hyperalimentation.

Supplement

Materials of the scientific-thematic conference “Intestinal microbiome: prevention of disorders and ways of correction” (Moscow, June 4, 2024). Part 1

Abstract

Materials of the scientific-thematic conference “Intestinal microbiome: prevention of disorders and ways of correction” (Moscow, June 4, 2024). Part 2

Abstract
In Memory of Toregeldy S. Sharmanov

Toregeldy S. Sharmanov (19.10.1930–25.05.2024)

Abstract
In Memory of Ivan V. Gmoshinsky

Ivan V. Gmoshinsky (04.02.1957–08.06.2024)

Abstract

All articles in our journal are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0 license)

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CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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